- The North-South Division of Korea and the Korean War (1945 - 1953) :
History of Korea : Timeline 1945 A.D. - 1953 A.D.
January the 3rd of 1946 - The Korean Communist Party announces support for "Trusteeship".
January 4,1946 - Cho Man-Sik (Korean: 조만식, pen-name Kodang) publicly opposes the "Trusteeship" and continues a Nationalist stance for complete Independence from any Foreign Power.
On 8 February 1946 - Cho Man-Sik was forced to resign from his position of Chairman of the Provisional People's Committee for the Five Provinces, and was placed under house arrest in Pyongyang by Soviet Forces. Other fellow independent Nationalists are quickly moved out of power.
March 20, 1946 - The Joint American-Soviet Commission, a product agreed upon in the "Moscow Conference" gathers. In the meeting the Soviet Russian side demands that only those Koreans that accept the "Trusteeship" are to be consulted on the political future of Korea. The U.S. disagrees bringing gridlock to the negatiations on the future of Korea.
March 23, 1946 - Kim Il-Sung announces his "Twenty Points Program", which establishes the main economic and political outline for the establishing North Korean State.
May 8, 1946 - The Joint American-Soviet Commission adjourns its meetings in complete stalemate, yielding no procedures established for the progress to an Independent and United Korean State.
June 10, 1946 - All industry in Northern Korea still (nominally and legally) held by Japanese firms are fully nationalized.
July 1946 - The U.S. State Department issues a policy directive for the U.S. Military Government in Korea stipulating that a colaition of moderates "must be encouraged", a first move towards u unified Korean Interim Government intended for all of Korea.
September 24, 1946 - A Wave of strikes begins across the Southern parts of Korea, often taking on a violent caracter. Police cracks down on Communists and "Leftists" across the South Korean "sector". The Strikes disippate after reaching a peak a few weeks later.
October 12, 1946 - Establishment of a half-elected, half-appointed Korean Interim Legislative Assembly is announced (in the South). The elected consists largely of Nationalist rightists after rounds of active suppression of Communists and "leftists" by Police in (Southern) Korea.
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March 1947 - The U.S.A. anunciates the "Truman Doctrine" signalling a hardened stance against Soviet Influence across the world and in Asia especially. This "Cold War" declaration has greet importance for the future of Korea and East- and South-East Asia.
July 1947 - The breakdown of the "Marshal-plan" negotations marks the beginning of the Cold War in Europe, on the other side of the Eurasian Continent.
July 19, 1947 - The United States of America's attempts to unify all Koreans into a National Movement for salvation and Independence is effectively defeated by the assassination of one of the main "leftist" politicians, Lyuh Woon-Hyung.
August 23, 1947 - The United States of America places the "Korean Question" in front of the
November 24, 1947 - The United Nations agress to a U.S. resolution establishing a U.N. Commission to expedite moves towards Korean Independence. The United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea (U.N.T.C.O.K.) is established. Argueing that the UNTCOK resolution violates Articles 23 and 107 of the UN Charter as well as the realier accords reach at the "Moscow Conference" the UNTCOK is not recognized in Northern Korea as well as other Soviet Territories. Further deterioration of International Political understandings over "The Koreas" becomes virtually inevitable.
February 8, 1948 - The Official establishment of the Korean Peoples Army (in the North), which reaches a strength of 60.000 men by the end of 1948.
March 27 through 30, 1948 - The second Congress of the Korean Workers Party is held in Pyongyang in North Korea. The Congress results in a major purge of the domestic Communist Party in the North, rooting out Communist Nationalists who have voiced opinions against Foreign (Soviet) domination of (North) Korean Affairs.
April 1, 1948 - On the other side of the Eurasian Continent the so-called "Berlin Blockade" raises tensions worldwide and form a new low point. A "Cold War"-mentality engulfs European States and the United States remains alarmed at perceived Soviet moves to dominate all of Europe. The blockade of Berlin will last for over 1 year, during which time Allied Powers maintain an air-transport bridge to the former german Capital.
April 3, 1948 - A Communist-led insurrection rises up on the secluded Cheju Island, situated South of the Korean peninsula. The uprising is defeated by massive military and police force, resulting in widespread damage and over 30.000 casualties.
May 10, 1948 - Following "National Assembly" elections in Southern Korea, Syngman Ree, the long time activist, emerges victorious becoming the first elected Leader of the Republic of Korea (R.O.K.), which will Govern South Korea.
July 17, 1948 - The Day of the promulgation of the
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new constitution of the Republic of Korea (R.O.K.) aka South Korea.
July 20, 1948 - Syngman Ree is appointed as the President of the Republic of Korea (R.O.K.).
August 15, 1948 - Proclamation of the Republic of Korea (R.O.K.) to govern South-Korea.
September 3, 1948 - Promulgation of the constitution of the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (D.P.R.K.).
September 9, 1945 - Proclamation of the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (D.P.R.K.) to Govern over North Korea.
October 20, 1948 - Break-out of the left-oriented Yosu Military rebellion (Yeosu-Suncheon Rebellion, also known as the Yeo-Sun incident) in Yeosu (여수 ; 麗水), Suncheon and surrounding towns in South Jeolla Province (Jeollanam-do). The rebellion against the newly installed Presidency of Singman Ree is repressed at a cost of an estimated 2000 casualties.
June 26, 1949 - Assassination of right-wing Nationalist political leader Kim Ku in Seoul.
October 1949 - U.S. Congress passes the "mutual defense assistance act" providing funds for a 65.000 men strong Korean (R.O.K.) Army, which will be established to cover a United States of America military withdrawal from Korea.
January 5, 1950 - U.S. President Harry Truman announces the ceasure of all Military Aid to the Nationalist Government of China, headed by Chiang-Kai Chek on the Island of Taiwan.
January 12, 1950 - U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson delivers a policy speach in which he excludes the mainland of Asia from the U.S. defense perimeter in (East) Asia.
April 1950 - After meetings with D.P.R.K. Leader Kim Il-Song in early April, Soviet Leader Stalin finally accepts a D.P.R.K. military offensive against the South "in general terms", still to be aproved by Chinese Leader Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party.
April 6, 1950 - The Government of the Republic of Korea (R.O.K.) implements its "Agricultural Land Reform Law".
April 13, 1950 - Kim Il-Song pays a visit to Beijing where he confers with Mao Zedong in person. During the visit Kim Il-Song obtains Mao Zedong's "general" approval for a military offensive against the Republic of Korea (R.O.K.) in South Korea.
You Tube Video: The Korean War, Part 1 of 3. A quick recap of all the local events leading up to the disastrous Korean War & more.
May 30, 1950 - The Second R.O.K. National Assembly elections are held. Most of the members previously seated in the Assembly are replaced by neutrals or by anti-Syngman Ree independent representatives.
June 10, 1950 - A Final meeting held in Moscow approves the North Korean battle plan for the invasion of the South, leaving the exact timing of the operation up to North Korean leader Kim Il-Song.
June 25, 1950 - The first shots of the Korean War are fired on the Ongjin Peninsula. Within hours thereafter a full scale invasion of the South crossing the 38th parallel demarcation line is in full swing.
June 27, 1950 - United States President Harry S. Truman orders the U.S. Navy into the Taiwan Straights, countering any possible Communist
Chinese invasion moves towards the Island of Taiwan. The official public reading declares the U.S. Navy will be operating in the Taiwan Straights in order to prevent any military actions, from Taiwan to China or vice versa from taking place there.
June 28, 1950 - The Korean Peoples Army (K.P..A.), the army of North Korea (D.P.R.K.) captures the city of Seoul, capital of the Republic of Korea (R.O.K.) a.k.a. South Korea.
June 30, 1950 - Forces from the United States of America enter the war against the North (D.P.R.K.).
July 5, 1950 - U.S. Army troops engage North Korean Army units for the first time near Osan. The Americans find themselves ill equiped and are quickly routed.
July 7, 1950 - The establishment of the United Nations Command (U.N.C.), a unified Military Command under strong U.S. leadership with the goal of restoring the previously held "status quo ante" in Korea.
August 1950 - The Korean Peoples Army (North Korea) advances to its maximum point in the Korean War, tightening a noose around the city of Pusan than being thrown back by arriving U.S. Troops and R.O.K. Units defending the last of the South Korean territories.
September 15, 1950 - United Nations Command troops directed by Supreme Allied Commander Douglas MacArthur land on the near the city of Inchon, due west of Seoul. The suprise attacks are a success, thereby threatening the city of Seoul and the North Korean supplies lines. As news of the succesful landings are kept from the North Korean Army units operating in the South, UNC troops move to cut off supply lines, and eventually capture 2/3 of the then active North Korean Army (K.P.A.).
September 30, 1950 - After the quick reversal induced by the Inchon Landings, United Nations forces pursue the K.P.A. on its retreat northward leading to a Public Warning issued by China (P.R.C.) urging United Nations troops not to cross the 38th parallel (into the D.P.R.K. proper).
October 1, 1950 - Republic of Korea army units move across the 38Th parallel, while U.S. and U.N. Forces halt to await further orders.
October 2nd, In a meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party in China (P.R.C.) chaired by Mao Zedong, China resolves to send troops to Korea. After a decline by General Lin Biao for health reasons, the overal command falls to General Peng Dehuai, another hero of the Chinese Civil War and survivor of the "Long March".
October 7, 1950 - Diplomatic efforts to achieve a cease-fire in Korea fail through a lack of enthusiasm on both sides. Subsequently the United Nations allows their troops to start operations North of the 38th parallel in the hope of forcing a cease-fire later or deliver a total defeat to North Korean troops.
October 8, 1950 - China (P.R.C.) informs the D.P.R.K. Government and Kim Il-Song that it is entering the Korean War in support of the D.P.R.K.
October 15, 1950 - U.S. President Truman flies to Wake Island in the Pacific Ocean to discuss the possibility of Chinese intervention in Korea and his desire to limit the scope of the Korean War. United Nations Command General MacArthur reassures Truman that "if the Chinese tried to get down to Pyongyang there would be the greatest slaughter." MacArthur grossly underestimates Chinese powers and intentions. Truman keeps his doubts on the matters.
October 19, 1950 - The North Korean capital Pyongyang falls to UN forces. On the same day, the PVA (Chinese Peoples' Volunteer Army) formally crosses the Yalu River under strict secrecy.
October 25th, 1950 - The first Chinese miliary offensive begins, 270,000 PVA troops march across the Yalu River which forms the border between the Peoples' Republic of China and the D.P.R.K.. The P.L.A. units move in secrecy before attack United Nations Troops.
November 24, 1950 - Still largely unaware of the magnitutude of the Chinese Threat within Korea the United Nations Command launches an offensive to counter the Chinese Threat and end the War. The offensive becomes known to the troops as the "home by Christmas" offensive.
November 28, 1950 - United Nations Command troops suddenly find themselves in a full scale retreat after suffering major defeats from Chinese Troops descending from the North into Korean territory. The first Chinese offensive is a complete success.
December 5, 1950 - Chinese Troops recapture the city of Pyongyang, the Capital of the Peoples' Republic of Korea (D.P.R.K.). Although unsure of his objectives, Mao Zedong orders an advance beyond and to the South of the 38Th parallel and preparations for a further offensive.
December 16, 1950 - U.S. President Truman declares a "National State of Emergency" which allows him to bypass Congress and the House of Representatives and subsequently moves to mobilize the American Military machine. 3.5 million men are called up for military duty, price controls on crucial commodities are imposed and the U.S. defense budget is significantly increased preparatory to a possible beginning of World War 3 over the "Korean issue".
21 through 23 December 1950 - Mu Chong and other military leaders from the so-called Yan'An (Chinese Educated) group are purged at the 3rd Plenum of the 2nd Congress of the Korean Workers Party (K.W.P.).
31 December 1950 - the Second Chinese Offensive, moving across the 38Th Paralelel begins leading shortly after to the fall of Seoul, the South Korean (R.O.K.) Capital. The succesful offensive rolls on until it is stopped in late January of 1950.
February 10, 1951 - In a reversal of fortunes, the City of Seoul is retaken by United Nations Forces, defeating battered Chinese Troops which find themselves ill-equipped for the bitter Korean Winter. Marshal Peng Dehuai faces a shortage of supplies and over extension of his supply lines. Regardless, Chinese Leader Mao Zedong orders preparations for a further offensive.
March 1, 1951 - Mao Zedong informs Soviet Leader Stalin that China (P.R.C.) is changing tactics to enter into a war of attrition. Mao makes clear that as far as he is concerned, there is little likelyhood of the Chinese being able to force a military solution to the "Korean Question", in other words: a decisive victory will not be possible. Chinese Human Wave tactics continue to be succesful, but at great costs.
March 20, 1951 - UNC Commander MacArthur dissents from U.S. War aims by writing his "no substitute for victory" letter to House Minority Leader Joseph Martin. The widespread publication of the letter spoils, spoiling among things, the chance for an early cease-fire in the ongoing Korean Conflict.
April 11, 1951 - U.S. General Douglas MacArthur is dismissed from all Military Posts, most noteably his office as Commander of United Nations Forces in Korea. He is replaced by General Hodge. The decision is welcomed by most Allied Nations who have contributed forces to the United Nations Command (U.N.C.) in Korea.
April 22, 1951 - The 5th and Final Chinese (P.V.A.) offensive in Korea againts United Nations Forces begins. The offensive holds for a month but is then fought to a stalemate as Chinese P.V.A. forces start to show signs of falling morale suffering from faltering supply lines. During the month of April the Chinese forces suffer an estimated 70,000 casualties, estimated at ten times more than UNC losses in the same period.
May 13, 1951 - Mao Zedong submits for Stalin's approval armistice terms based on a restoration of the pre'- war status quo, i.e. a division of Korea along the 38th parallel.
June 1951 - The UNC publicly abandons pursuit of and destruction of enemy forces while the United States of America declares its readiness to accept an armistice at or near the 38th parallel.
July 10, 1951 - Formal start of Armistice negotatiations in the Korean War.
November 27, 1951 - A substantive agreement on an armistice line is agreed upon between the major warring parties. Due to Western insistince against the forced return of Prisoners of War to their native countries (as stipulated in the Geneva Convention), the P.O.W. issue becomes the major obstacle for armistice agreement.
December 23, 1951 - R.O.K. President Syngman Ree organizes his personal support base into what will become the Liberal Party of Korea. It is not a Liberal but rather a Conservative Party centered on the interest of the President, his family and their circle of supporters.
January 18, 1952 - The R.O.K. National Assembly (parliament) rejects a proposal for a constitutional amendment that will allow for direct popular elections of the South Korean President(s).
August 5, 1952 - Syngman Ree is re-elected as President of the R.O.K. (South Korea) with a swopping 74% in Natinla Assembly votes.
November 1952 - Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, General and Hero of World War II in Europe is elected President of the United States of America. The International Community fears a re-escalation of violence in Korea.
February 7, 1953 - Last known public appearance of D.P.R.K. Foreign Minister (and South Korean Communist leader) Pak Hon-Yong. He and some of his colleagues are publicly accused of factionalism within the Korean Workers Party, an offensive regarded as especially grave.
Asia Report - Koreas - Historic Map : Koreas in 1953 AD
A historic geographic Map dated to the year 1953 AD, the year of the Armistice in the Korean War that is still in force today.
This Geographic Map depicts the entire Korean Peninsula and parts of neighboring regions of Shandong Province, Liaoning Province and Jilin Province of China (P.R.C.), Primorky Krai Province of the Russian Federation and last Japan. Included on the Map are main Cities, Towns and villages, main road, connections, railroads and sites of historic or other interests.
Browse the map to explore the historic situation at the end of the Korean War (1951 - Armistice 1953) and the connections between Liaoning Province and Jilin Province of The Peoples Republic of China and the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea). Click and follow the links to further information, photos and maps.
March 5, 1953 - Death of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, which opens up a different world in the East as well as the West. The outlook for an armistice agreement in Korea improves markedly as a settlement of the Korean Conflict becomes a priority for Stalin's successors.
April 1953 - Suicide of Korean Workers Party Soviet-Korean faction leader Ho Ka-i (허가이)(also known as: Alexei Ivanovich Hegay (Russian: Алексей Иванович Хегай)) a Soviet (U.S.S.R.) political operative born in Chabarovsk and working in North Korea after the japanese surrender in 1945 highlights a break with the strong overall political guidance by the Soviet Union. He replaced as leader of the Soviet-Korean faction by Pak Chang Ok (박창옥), who never left Korean soil and engaged in struggles against the Japanese there.
June 4, 1953 - The Prisoner of War-issue is resolved when the Communist side(s) accept an ambiguously worded clause that leaves the non-repatriated POW's in the South for the time being, to be handled and checked by an independent United Nations commission.
July 27, 1953 - At Panmunjom village, a military armistice is signed for all of the Korean Peninsula effectively ending the armed activity in the Korean War. No final peace settlement can be agreed upon however, a situation that lasts until this very day.
August 3, 1953 - In North Korea major trials of Southern Communists begin. In show-trails the majority is sentenced to death.
August 15, 1953 - The Government of the Republic of South Korea (R.O.K.) headed by Singman Ree returns from the city of Pusan to the Capital Seoul.
October 1st, 1953 - The day of the signing of the R.O.K.-U.S.A. Mutual Defense Agreement Act, which guarantees U.S. intevention in case of another military invasion from the North. In the coming 60 years (and beyond) the Defense Pact will be considered the corner-stone of defense of the Republic of Korea. It is a great deterence to the North and supporting Nations.
A United Comunist National Front ? An idealized portrait of Josef Stalin & Mao Zedong as posing together. In reality, the Chinese & Russian communist movements split very early (1930's), as the Chinese under Leadership of Mao (& Zhou Enlai) insisted on following their own Line, instead of becoming Soviet stooges. A line that has become known as Communism or Socialism-with-Chinese-Caracteristics.
Kim Il-Song would follow a similar line in the aftermath of the disastrous Korean War.