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- Kim Yong-Il and Kim Il-Song (1973 - 1994) :
History of Korea : Timeline 4: 1973 A.D. - 1994 A.D.
February 13, 1973 - Start of the organization of the "Three Revolutions Teams Movement" introducing Son of Kim Il-Song, Kim Yong-Il as a key leader working withing the Korean Workers Party state framework.  The major ideological campaign of the Three Revolutions was a political as well as economic campaign aimed at "re-invigorating" revolutionary spirit among the core industry workers in mining, heavy industry and other major production sectors in the hope of increasing production and thus stimulate economic growth. Although his position as such was not revealed to the outside world until 1974, Kim Yong-Il was a key leader of the eventualy emerging "Three Revolutions Team Movement" and major ideological works of this movement were associated with Kim Yong-Il, a fact that laid the foundations for his claim to be an important theoretical thinker in his own right.
As the three revolutions teams movement progressed, over time a miniature personality cult started to build around Kim Yong-Il's person, featuring quotes from his revolutionary writing, songs of praise and ardent study of his core theoretical thinking.

August 8, 1973 - Kim Dae Jung kidnapped from a hotel room in Tokyo by agents of the South Korean KCIA. After the murder of Kim Dae Jung on the high seas are interrupted by American Forces, Kim Dae Jung is transported to Seoul where he put under "House Arrest" on August 13.

October 2, 1973 - Public dissent with the "Yushin Constitution" intensivies and finds a voice in the most Liberal and least controlled section of society, the University students. Campus Demonstrations occur and by late November most major Campuses in South Korea are closed in an attempt to root out further possibility of protests.

December 1, 1973 - Lee Hu Rak is removed as Head of the South Korean Central Intelligence Agency (K.C.I.A.). In the aftermath the Intelligence is brought under tighter Government Control (whereas previously it is said to have functioned as a "State within the State").

January 8, 1974 - Park Chung-Hee issues emergency decrees banning criticisms of the "Yushin Constititution". It is the first of a series of emergency decrees attempting to quel political protest and curb dissident political movements.

April, 1974 - A major infiltration tunnel running from North Korea into South Korea underneath the demilitarized zone (D.M.Z.) is detected and laid bare.

August 15, 1974 - The attempted assassination of Park Chung-Hee results in the death of his wife, Yuk Song-yu.

November 15, 1974 - Rising of steam alerts United Nations Command army units along the DMZ of the existence of another major infiltration tunnel leading underneath the DMZ from North- into South Korea. The tunnel is discovered  in the western DMZ near Korangpo, some 65 km from Seoul and 8 km northeast of Korangpo. It has a prefabricated wall of concrete and slate. The tunnel is large enough to allow the transit of a regiment of troops and heavy artillery every hour.

Late, 1974 - A North Korean defector named Kim Bu-seong, former official of the Liaison Bureau of the Workers' Party of North Korea, who participated in the construction of underground tunnels and defected to the South. During interrogations following his escape from North Korea Kim Bu-seong claimed that the north had built a secret tunnel across the demilitarized zone for the main purpose of invading the south.

On March 19, 1975 a tunnel (the third in total) was discovered following the testimony of Kim Bu-sung The South Korean Army analyzed the sound of underground explosions which started to be heard in Cholwon in 1972, and examined suspected sites. The arch-shaped tunnel is double the size of the one found on November 15 of 1974. The tunnel is located some 13 km north of Cholwon and is 101 km from Seoul. It has a total length of 3,500 meters and is 50-160 meter below the surface. About 3,000 armed troops and their vehicles, artillery and tanks can pass per hour.

April 1975 - With the fall of the Capital of Saigon, the Republic of South Vietnam is vanquished by its north Vietnamese neighbor. At the same time Cambodia becomes a communist state run by the soon infamous Khmer Rouge Regime which is heavily supported by the Peoples Republic of China, as is North Vietnam. This brings a bitter political and military defeat upon the United States and brings an end to the war in Vietnam.
During this "end game" of the Cold War conflict in South-East Asia, North Korean Leader immediatly pays a visit to the Chinese Capital Beijing. According to historical sources in direct talks with the Chinese Leadership (Mao Zedong & Zhou Enlai) Kim Il-Song unsuccesfully negotiated for Chinese support of another attack on South Korean with the aim of reunification of the Korea's.

June 1975 - The D.P.R.K. makes its first public aknowledgement of the existence of a rising Foreign Debt problem.

August 1975 - The D.P.R.K. is admitted as a member of the "Movement of Non-Alligned Countries which is strongly led by independent India. The admittance is of great diplomatic importance to North Korea, a nation which feels itself beleagered by hostile nations and growing international dissympathy, while not being able to rely on the full support of its traditional allies the U.S.S.R and the Peoples Republic of China.

December 1975 - The Movement of the Three Revolutions begins under the direction of Kim Yong-Il. Ideological Teams are sent to each majory industry branch, factory, mine and farm to shape political education of the people and so raise the (mainly quantitative) output. It is major political drive to reinvigorate the economy as well as the people, keeping them alligned with Juche Ideal launched by "Great Leader" and father of the Nation Kim Il-Song. Over time, the drive will establish Kim Yong-Il as a Leader in his own right.

August 18, 1976 - The so-called "Axe Killings"-incident at Panjumon Truce Village on the DMZ between North and South Korea which leaves several U.S. Servicemen dead, ignites high tensions along the entire Demilitarized Zone. Several firing incidents are reported from the D.M.Z. A little later, North Korean leader Kim Il-Song publicly expresses his regrets for the incident, but only after a major U.S. show of military force.

March 9, 1977 - United States President Jimmy Carter declares the intention to withdraw U.S. ground forces from the R.O.K. (South Korea) in a period of 4 to 5 years.

September 1978 - Signing of the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty.

October 17, 1978 - A third tunnel (4th in total) under the DMZ is discovered following the 1974 testimony of defector Kim Bu-sung. It is about the same size as the 2nd Underground Tunnel and was designed for both conventional warfare and guerrilla infiltration. The tunnel is situated at 4 km south of Panmunjom and 44 km from Seoul. It is 73 meters underground and roughly 1,635 meters long. About 30,000 ranked, heavily-armed troops can pass per hour.

December 1978 - Deng Xiaoping asserts control over the Chinese Communist Party (C.C.P.) launching the policy of opening up combined with economic reform policies.

January 1, 1979 - The official normalization of Sino-American diplomatic affairs takes effect.

October 18, 1979 - Martial Law is declared in the port city of Pusan in South Korea (R.O.K.) after major student riots and violent clashes erupt there.

October 26, 1979 - Assassination of Park Chung-Hee after which a nationwide state of martial law is declared within South Korea.

December 12, 1979 - Chun Doo Hwan arrests martial law commander Chung Seung-Hwa and effectively seizes control of the military in South Korea (R.O.K.).

February 29, 1980 - Civil rights of the nations' leading "dissidents" among which Kim Dae Jung and Yun Po-Sun are restored in South Korea (R.O.K.).

May 17, 1980 - Chun Doo Wan declares a nationwide martial law in South Korea (R.O.K.) and effects his full take-over of the Government apparatus completing a military coup d'etat.

May 18, 1980 - The military Coup D'Etat effected by Chun Doo Wan elicits a strong public response with violent confrontations between demonstrators and the military in Kwangju. Government forces are beaten back to withdraw from the city on May 20, but return on May 27 to re-take the city by force from protestors and the citizenry with massive casualties as a result.

August 27, 1980 - Chun Doo Hwan is "elected" president by a newly established Government body identifying itself as the "National Conference for Unification".

September 17, 1980 - Kim Dae Jung is sentenced to death on charges of "sedition".

October 10 through 14, 1980 - The 6Th Congress of the Korean Workers Party convenes in Pyongyang, North Korea (D.P.R.K.). It is during this Congress that Kim Yong-Il is officially and publicly declared the political successor to his father "Dear Leader" Kim Il-Song.

22 October 1980 - in South Korea Chun Doo Hwan consolidates his rule when Constitutional amendments , including one for the indirect election of the President, are approved in a National referendum and approved by Parliament.

September 30, 1981 - Seoul is chosen as the location city for the 1986 Asian Games and also as the location for the 1988 Olympic Games.

February 15, 1982 - 40Th Birthday of Kim Yong-Il. For the occassion he publishes a new and major treatise on ideology named "On the Juche Idea".
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You Tube Video: Burma Bomb attack of October 9, 1983 - Footage o/t bomb blast & aftermath plus more information.
October 9, 1983 - In Rangoon, the Capital of Myanmar (Burma), a bomb is detonated during an official ceremony at the "Tomb of Martyrs" killing 17 senior South Koreans but failing to kill President Chun Doo Hwan who was also to be present but had been delayed in busy traffic. According to some reports the bomb meant to kill the President was detonated too early due to the fact that the presidential bugle which signalled Chun's arrival mistakenly rang out a few minutes ahead of schedule and before the South Korean President had in fact arrived. In total 21 people were killed and 46 were wounded in the attack. Among the South Korean dead were 3 senior South Korean politicians: foreign minister Lee Beom-seok, economic planning minister and deputy prime minister Suh Suk Joo, and minister for commerce and industry Kim Dong Whie.
In the immediate aftermath of the bomb attack North Korean commando's are captured in Burma while attempting to flee that Nation.
Although North Korea denies involvement, the Government of Myanmar declares it is satisfied to know where guilt lies.

January 10, 1984 - The earlier D.P.R.K. proposal to have tripartite diplomatic talks, relayed by the Peoples Republic of China to the U.S.A. on October 8 of 1982, is made public.

May 16, 1984 - Kim Il-Song begins a 45 day international diplomatic tour of the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) and other communist states in Eastern Europe. This visit is the dramatic opening event of a renewed period of blossoming relations between North Korea and the U.S.S.R. as well as other Communsit States. This new period is marked by increased economic and strategic coordination and cooperation.

September 14, 1984 - After devastating rain and typhoon damage, the R.O.K. accepts a D.P.R.K. offer to send flood relief goods starting a new phase of inter-Korean cooperation, communications and diplomacy.

December 20, 1984 - Political opposition forces in the R.O.K. unite in order to form the New Korean Democratic Party (N.K.D.P.).

February 12, 1985 - Strong performance of NKDP candidates in the election of the 12Th National Assembly government envigorates to political opposition forces against Chun Doo Hwan.

March 6, 1985 - President Chun Doo Hwan of South Korea lifts bans on political activity by major opposition figures such as Kim Dae Jung, Kim Yong Sam and Kim Yong Pil.

March 10, 1985 - Death of Soviet Leader Chernenko, the last of the old generation of Soviet Leadership. The subsequent appointment of his successor Michael Gorbachev starts a new era in the Soviet Union, including nationwide economic reforms and political changes.

4 through 6 September, 1985 - A D.P.R.K. Politburo member, Ho Dam, pays a secret visits to Seoul the Capital of South Korea in an unsuccesful attempt to arrange a top-level meeting between Kim Doo Hwan and North Korean leader Kim Il Song.

September 20, 1985 - The first ever exchange of "hometown meeting groups" between North- and South Korea take place.

December 12, 1985 - North Korea enters the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (N.N.P.T.) . (The 3rd atricle of the N.P.V. will not come into power until April 10, 1992). Under this agreement the D.P.R.K. obliges itself to accept the "safeguards" with reference to "all original or fissile material available and.or used within the peaceful nuclear processes within its territory with the express purpose of the verification that this material is not and will not be used in the production of nuclear arms or any other type of explosive material".  The agreement allows for the International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) of the United Nations the right to verify these "safeguards" through reluar reports and inspections and obliges the D.P.R.K. and the I.A.E.A. to publish an "Initial Report" on the use and availability of fissile material within the D.P.R.K. up to that point (Inspections will begin in May 1992).

July 1986 -  A speech by Soviet leader Michael Gorbachev made in the city of Vladivostok presages major changes to Soviet Foreign Policy, especially in East Asia. After reshuffling the National Security leadership diplomatic overtures are made towards China (P.R.C.) and arms control proposals are made by the Soviet Union.

April 13, 1987 - After prolonged negotiations have taken place, President Kim Doo Hwan breaks off negotations with major opposition parties concerning constitutional reforms.

June 10, 1987 - The Convention of D.J.P. in South Korea affirms Roh Tae Wooh as the successor of Chun Doo Hwan leading to widespread public discontent and leading to violent street demonstrations in Seoul and other cities in South Korea.

June 29, 1987 - After major demonstrations have erupted in South Korea the new President of South Korea, Roh Tae Wooh announces an 8 point program which includes the acceptance of direct popular elections for the Presidency of South Korea.

July 1987 - Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping states for the first time that China (P.R.C.) will not support a D.P.R.K. military action against the R.O.K. It is a turning point in Chinese-Korean relations in the aftermath of which secret negotations between the Peoples Republic of China and the R.O.K. begin while the D.P.R.K. is left out.

October 27, 1987 - A bomb planted aboard a Korean Airlines flight out of Baghdad (KAL 858) in Iraq brings down the aircraft over the Bay of Bengal. The 104 passengers and 11 crew members, most of whom were South Koreans, were killed.
In the aftermath the purpetrators of the attack are tracked down. One commits suicide by means of smoking a cyanide laced sigarette while the 2nd, a woman identified as Kim Hyon Hui, confesses and testifies on the specifics of her orders, strongly implicating North Korean leader Kim Jong-il. As a result, the U.S. State Department places North Korea on its blacklist of state sponsors of terrorism on which it remains until the year 2008.

December 16, 1987 - Roh Tae Woo wins the Presidential elections in South Korea.

April 26, 1988 - In South Korea the ruling D.J.P. Party wins only 25.5 % of the vote in the 13Th National Assembly elections. Strenghtening the opposition further, these election results set the stage for a prolonged period of political deadlock within South Korea.

July 7, 1988 - President Roh Tae Woo of South Korea opens a window to the North with his "Nordpolitik" speech. This opens possibilities for Japan and other allies of the R.O.K. to seek closer ties with the D.P.R.K.

September 16, 1988 - A speech held by Soviet leader Michael Gorbachev in the city of Krasnoyarsk is a prelude to soviet economic exchanges with South Korea (R.O.K.).

September 17, 1988 - Opening Day of the Seoul 1988 Olympic Games bringing new  global political recognition to the Government of South Korea and the Korean people.

October 31, 1988 - The United States of America begins non-official talks with North Korea (D.P.R.K.).

November 21, 1988 - South Korea (R.O.K.) announces that it will permit trade between private companies and foreign companies in the R.O.K. with the D.P.R.K. for the first time since the 1953 armistice. As a result inter-Korean trade rises dramatically.

April 3, 1989 - The Soviet Union opens a trade mission in Seoul, Capital of South Korea (R.O.K.).

May 1989 - The United States of America makes its first official remarks regarding concerns over the nuclear program as pursued by North Korea (D.P.R.K.).

June 4, 1989 - After months of unrest, and the declaration of Martial Law in Beijing, the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army moves into Tiananmen Square to violently evict all anti-Government protestors and put an end to what the Central Government had deemed an anti-revolutionary movement. Thousands of civilians are wounded and many scores killed in attempts to prevent the armies march on Tiananmen Square. Although protests linger throughout the Nation in the week after the violent crackdown, eventually order is restored throughout the nation.

November 10, 1989 - The dismantling of the "Berlin Wall" begins in earnest. The event symbolizes the final fall collapse of the Soviet dominated "East Block".

February 9, 1990 - Roh Tae Woo, Kim Young Sam and Kim Yong Pil announce their move to fuse their powers in a new opposition party in South Korea, the Democratic Liberal Party.

March 3 , 1990 - After detecting the sound of underground motors in May of 1989, the U.S. Army started excavation work searching for yet another secret North Korean invasion tunnel.
Twenty-three days after they started digging, the counter-tunnel reached the North Korean tunnel. Forty-five Korean and foreign journalists were present at the scene of discovery of the fourth tunnel on March 3, 1990. The tunnel is 145 meters below the surface and is 2,052 meters long. It is located 26 km northeast of Yangku. The tunnel could allow the transit of some 30,000 soldiers per hour.

June 4, 1990 - One year after the Tiananmen Square massacre Roh Tae Woo and Soviet leader Michael Gorbachev have an official summit meeting in San Fransisco, U.S.A. At the meeting Gorbachev agrees to open full scale diplomatic relations with South Korea (R.O.K.).

July 3, 1990 - The R.O.K. and D.P.R.K. break a prolonged stalemate in inter-Korean dialogue by agreeing to hold Prime-Minister level talks.

September 4, 1990 - Prime-Minister level talks between the two Korea's commence.

September 25, 1990 - Japanese political Kingmaker Kanemaru Shin begins negotiations on normalization of Japan-D.P.R.K. relations in Pyongyang. He concludes an agreement, but this is subsequently repudiated by the Tokyo Governemnt.

September 30, 1990 - The Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) establishes official diplomatic relations with the R.O.K.

January 17, 1991 - Beginning of Operation Desert Storm resulting in the quick defeat of the Iraqi Army and the liberation of the Gulf State of Quwait. South Korea contributes to this operation by sending a 154 member military medical team, but does not send combat soldiers.

January 30, 1991 - The Republic of Korea (South Korea) opens a trading office in the City of Beijing, the Capital of the Peoples' Republic of China.

August 3, 1991 - The Republic of Korea (South Korea) announces its intention to apply for full United Nations membership after the Peoples' Republic announces that it will not oppose such a move.

September 17, 1991 - Both the R.O.K. and the D.P.R.K. become full members of the United Nations.

December 1991 - After a politically turbulent summer the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) is dissolved, creating several "new" independent Central Asian states.

December 13, 1991 - Agreement of reconcilliation, Non-aggression and exchanges and cooperation is signed between North- and South Korea.

December 30, 1991 - The D.P.R.K. announces plans to establish a Free Economic and Trading Zone at Rajin-Sunbong on the border with the Peoples' Republic of China.

January 22, 1991 - The first high-level U.S. to D.P.R.K. meeting is held in New York between Korean Workers Party - International bureau Chairman Kim Young Sun (eldest son of Kim Yong-Il) and U.S. under-Secretary of State for Political Affairs Arnold Kanter.

January 31, 1992 - North Korea (D.P.R.K.) signs the safeguards accord of the International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) which is an arm of the United Nations.

April 10, 1992 - Article III of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty comes into power, demanding the D.P.R.K. gives full disclosure of its possesion of fissile (nuclear) materials.

In May of 1992 the D.P.R.K. and I.A.E.A. issue their obligatory initial report on the availability of fissile materials within D.P.R.K. territory. Almost immediatly problems arise as "inconsistenties" appear between the amount of Plutonium and nuclear waste products specified by the D.P.R.K. and the analysis made by the I.A.E.A. According to the I.A.E.A. analysis (from estimates based on the produced waste material) that amounts of Plutonium are missing in the declarations given by the D.P.R.K.

August 24, 1992 - China (P.R.C.) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) formally establish Diplomatic Relations.

November 1992 - In order to verify the "inconsistenties" found by the I.A.E.A. after their analysis of the "Initial Report" the I.A.E.A. requests permission to inspect two sites that are part of North Korea's Yongbyon nuclear facility. The D.P.R.K. refuses to honor the request on the grounds that these facilities are of a military nature causing the I.A.E.A. to implement "special inspections" under the D.P.R.K.'s signing of the "Safeguard Agreement".

November 3, 1992 - Bill Clinton is elected as President of the United States of America. He would remain in office as President from January 20, 1993 to January 20, 2001.

December 18, 1992 - Kim Yong Sam is elected President of South Korea (R.O.K.) to succeed Roh Tae Woo. Kim Yong Sam wins 42% of the votes in the election.

March 12, 1993 - The D.P.R.K. announces its withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (N.P.T.). The ongoing dialogue between North Korea (D.P.R.K.) and South Korea (R.O.K.) is stopped.

August 12, 1993 - In South Korea (R.O.K.) President Kim Yong Sam decrees the implementation of a real name financial system, a move to limit possibilities of tax evasion and corruption.

In early 1994 new troubles arise surrounding the I.A.E.A. inspections of North Korean nuclear facilities, leading the Board of I.A.E.A. in June of that year to conclude that "North Korea is expanding its non-cooperation with the inspection regime (of the I.A.E.A.). which it sites as a reason to cancel non-medical technical help that has been given to that country.

May 1994 - Contrary to its (previous)  obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the D.P.R.K. starts to unload spent nuclear fuel rods from its 5MW reactor at Yongbyon nuclear facility without the full inspection by the the I.A.E.A.
This move precipitates a major confrontation between the United States of America and the D.P.R.K.

June 13, 1994 - North Korea (D.P.R.K.) announces that it will cancel its participation in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. In response the U.S.A. announces it will seek further sanctions to be imposed on North Korea.
September 1, 1983 - Korean Airlines flight 007 originating from New York City in the U.S.A. is shot down over the Sea of Japan, near Moneron Island just west of Sakhalin Island within Soviet Airspace by a Soviet air defense fighter. 269 people are killed in the crash.
The incident raises diplomatic tensions between the Soviet Union and the U.S.A. considerably until it becomes clear that Korean Air 007 did divert course considerably and that the airliner may have been mistakenly shot down due to it being confused with a secret U.S. electronic
September 1, 1983 - Korean Airlines flight 007 originating from New York City in the U.S.A. is shot down over the Sea of Japan, near Moneron Island just west of Sakhalin Island within Soviet Airspace by a Soviet air defense fighter. 269 people are killed in the crash.
The incident raises diplomatic tensions between the Soviet Union and the U.S.A. considerably until it becomes clear that the airliner was mistakenly shot down due to it being confused with a secret U.S. electronic surveillance plane which was in the same area at the same time.

October 8, 1983 - Chinese diplomats and officials inform the U.S.A. that North Korea (D.P.R.K.) is willing to participate in 3 way diplomatic talks also involving South Korea (D.P.R.K.).
surveillance plane which was in the same area at the same time. The exact causes of the incident remain unclarified to this day.
You Tube Video: July 1994 State Funeral proceedings for President Kim Il-Song in Pyongyang. North Korea (Part 1 of 3).
June 16 and 17, 1994 - In attempt to deascalate the situation former U.S. President travels to Pyongyang in order to have direct talks with North Korean President Kim Il-Song. During talks with former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, North Korean leader and President Kim Il-Song agrees to negotiate a settlement on nuclear issues with the U.S. and agrees to a high level meeting with South Korean President Kim Yong Sam (which will later become the 2nd Inter-Korean Top in history.
Furthermore, in return for certain steps by the U.S. such as full diplomatic recognition, a promise not to attack the D.P.R.K. and access to U.S. nuclear technology President Kim Il-Song promises not to reload the Yongbyon reactor for the further processing of spent fuel into weapons grade material. President Kim also hints he may halt the further construction of additional reactors and related installations and may allow I.A.E.A. inspectors to remain in North Korea pending further negotiations.
July 8, 1994 - President Kim Il-Song of North Korea (D.P.R.K.) dies of a heart attack at the age of 82, ending the Era of the "First Presidency" in North Korea. With this, the D.P.R.K. enters a 3 year period of mourning. Although, even after his death Kim Il-Song remains in function as the official President of the D.P.R.K. Leadership of the D.P.R.K. is transferred to Kim Yong-Il, the son of Kim Il-Song completing the first ever dynastic transition of power within a socialist nation anywhere in the world.

5 August 1994 - Continued negotiations between North Korea, South Korea, the United States of America and other parties lead to the signing of the so called "Agreed Framework" which is to deal with the disagreements surrounding the North Korean nuclear program. According to the agreement North Korea will freeze all its nuclear activities under oversight by the I.A.E.A. at that time and agree to completely dismantle them in
due time. In return the U.S.A. agrees to establish an international consortium which will arrange for the financing and delivery to North Korea of two so called "Light water reactors". In addition the U.S. agrees to make crude oil deliveries which are to compensate for North Korea's loss in energy production.
Along with further elements aimed at improving inter-Korean relations the agreed framework aims to prevent a "2nd Korean War" and keep North Korea within the confines of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. One of the clauses mentions how the North Korea will continue to work for the (eventual) de-nuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.
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