December 7, 1941 - Without an official war declaration Japanese Naval Units make a surprise attack on the main United States Naval Base at Pearl Harbor near Honolulu in the Hawaiian Islands destroying a large number of ships and killing 1000's of U.S. Sailors. The Japanese military move triggers the start of the Pacific War. Although the U.S. Pacific fleet is badly mauled, none of its aircraft carriers are caught in port. Thus, the U.S. Pacific Fleet remains a powerful force at Sea.
Voicing a united outrage in what has become known as the "Day of Infamy Speech", U.S. President F.D. Roosevelt declares war on Japan and its Allies Germany and Japan. The Japanese failure to annihilate the U.S. Pacific Fleet would later turn out to be the beginning of the end for Japanese Ambitions in Asia.
December 1, 1943 - At the so-called "Cairo Conference" of Allied Powers (Nov, 22 to 26, 1943, knowledge of which outcome was
You Tube Video: President Franklin Delano Roosevelt speech before Congress and the House of Representatives, declaring War on Japan and its Allies on December 8, 1941.
You Tube Video: 七七盧溝橋事變 抗曰戰爭全面爆發！, detailing some backgrounds, events and significance of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.
June 1937 - The ongoing gradual military and economic expansion of Japan into North China finally culminates into what is today known as the "Marco Polo Bridge Incident" (盧溝橋事變; also known as 七七事變, 七七盧溝橋事變 or the Lugouqiao Incident), which took place at the Marco Polo Bridge (Lugouqiao) due south of Beijing between 7 July and 9 July of 1937.
As Japanese succeeded in gaining control of the ancient Imperial Capital of Beijing, the incident provoked the first all out war campaign of the Chinese Republican Army against Japanese Forces in North China.
March 1938 - Korean language is officially removed from the curriculum of middle school students in Korea, marking another stage of integration with the rising Japanese Empire.
In July 1938, the Japanese 19th Division of the "Kwangtung Army" entered territory claimed by the Soviet Union, leading to the Battle of Lake
Khasan (29 July - Augst 11, 1938) near the current North Korean Border (currently in Primorsky Krai, Russia). This was a response to radio intercepts which indicated the Russians were to take position on a strategic highrounds, the Changkufeng Heights which would put them in a position overlooking the Tumen River and the Korean Town of Raijin (Currently: Rason (라선) in North Korea; formerly Rajin-Sŏnbong) and its strategic harbor. The incursion and battle was explained by the Japanese by stating that the Soviet Union misinterpreted the demarcation of the boundary (Korea / Manchukou)-Russia), as stipulated in the Treaty of Peking, between Imperial Russia and Manchu China (and subsequent supplementary agreements on demarcation), and furthermore, that the demarcation markers were tampered with.
After the initial days of Batlle, Russian Reinforcements arrived to defeat the Japanese incursion.
After the Battle of Khasan tension between Russia and Japan remained high, leading to continous border skirmishes. Russia however did not enter into a full scale war with Japan.
August 1939 - Promulgation of the Labor Mobilization Law in Korea, under the authority of which hundreds of thousands of Korean citizens are deported to Japan to work as laborers in the war industry. Initial Koreans are pressed to sign up as volunteers but soon working in Japan becomes conscripted and obligatory for those selected.
September 3, 1939 - As Hitler's (Nazi) Germany attacks the free Nation of Poland on the western side of the Eurasian Continent, Britain, France and others declare War on Germany and its Allies (Italy and Japan), plunging the world into World War 2. For the time being the United States remains outside the Frey, not declaring war.
November 10, 1939 - Promulgation of the "Name Order" in Korea, another Law aimed at integrating annexed territories with the Japanese Motherland is implemented. Under the new Law Koreans are obliged to adopt Japanese names, which eventually around 84% do.
August 10, 1940 - All non-official (= not Japanese sanctioned and supported) Korean Language newspapers are abandoned and shut down.
September 1940 - At the end of the year 1940, after successful Japanese Campaigns against Communist Guerilla Forces in Manchuria, Kim Il-Sung (김일성 ; 金日成) was the only 1st Army leader who remained alive and free . Pursued by Japanese troops and units of the Republic of Manchukuo, Kim Il-Sung and what remained of his army escaped from Manchukuo into Russian controlled territory by crossing the Amur River and entering the Soviet Union. Effectively confined by the Soviets, Kim and his Guerilla group are sent to live in a camp near the Siberian City of Khabarovsk (along the trans-Siberian railway), where the Korean Communist guerrillas were subsequently retrained and reeducated in ideological matters by the Soviet Union. Kim became a Major in the Soviet Red Army and served in the Soviet Army in the Far East until the end of World War II in 1945.
September 1931 - The Manchurian Incident also known as the "Mukden (Shenyang) Incident" announces Japanese moves for a complete military take-over of the Manchurian Regions. The moves of the military go without the consent of the Japanese Emperor Hirohito or that of the civilian Prime Minister and his Cabinet.
After the Manchurian Incident incident Japan controls most of Manchuria in which it will seek to establish the "Republic of Manchukuo".
The move into Manchuria brings Japanese Forces in direct confrontation with Russian Forces and National
You Tube Video: Horrific images of the Manchukuo Incident and following Japanese War Crimes commited in Manchuria and some explanations set to a musical background.
(WARNING: Graphic Imagery - Not for under age viewers)
May 15, 1932 - "May 15Th Incident (五・一五事件; Goichigo Jiken)" ; The last of the Japanese civilian Prime Ministers, Inukai Tsuyoshi (犬養 毅) who was installed in office in 1931 and resisted Military Plans for expansion in China and beyond, is assassinated. It is a Coup D'Etat by the military. He is succeeded by a "Cabinet of National Unity" which is dominated by the Japanese Army and Navy.
April 1933 - The Japanese Army launches the first of its large-scale drives to eradicate Korean Communist Guerilla's who operate out of basis in the Manchurian Regions. In 2 years successive campaigns will force the Guerilla's into a mobile lifestyle, operating without their basis and.or moving them into Russian controlled zones.
1935 - In 1935 the man now known as Kim Il-Sung became a member of the Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army, a guerrilla group led by the Communist Party of China. Kim was appointed the same year to serve as political commissar for the 3rd detachment of the second division, around 160 soldiers.
1935 - Korean Communist Guerilla Leader Kim Il-Sung adopts his now famous name as 김일성 Kim Il-Sung, meaning "become the sun".
August 5, 1936 - General Minami Jiro, the key Japanese Military Leader in the "Mukden Incident" is promoted to the office of Governor-General of Korea and sets to work intensifying the mobilization of the Korean workforce(s) in support of the planned Japanese Military expansion into China (and Mongolia).
March 16, 1937 - Governor-General Minami Jiro orders the exclusive use of the Japanese Language in Government and official documents as well as financial and legal transactions in Korea.
April 1937 - Under political leadership of Kim Il-Sung his division of Korean guerilla's successfully raid the border village of Pochonbo (just within Korea) establishing Kim Il-Sung as a major Communist guerilla leader in the Manchurian Regions. The successful raid enrages the Japanese, triggering a major military offensive against the Communist group led by Kim Il-Sung driving them back far into Manchuria and away from the Korean Border.
1937 - Aged only 24 years, Kim Il-Sung was appointed commander of the 6th division of the "Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army" which was in large part inspired by the Chinese Communist Party and had Russian (Soviet) support as well.
This page was last updated on: May 19, 2015
My Great Web page
announced through a (worldwide broadcasted) Communique on December 1st, the U.S.A. , Britain and China reach an agreement that in the Post-World War 2 situation, the Korean Territories will be put under a "Trustee-ship", preparatory to its Independence, which shall be "reached in due course". The is agreement including the important lines; "all the territories Japan has stolen from the Chinese, such as Manchuria, Formosa, and the Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China", and that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent", is signed for China by Generalissimo Chiang-Kai Chek. The are no Korean Representatives at the Conference.
August 15, 1945 - Official surrender of the Japanese Empire to the Allied Powers, represented by Supreme Allied Commander in the Pacific U.S. General Douglas MacArthur and signed in Tokyo Harbor on the Battleship Missouri. In Korea "Chosen (Korea)" Governor-General Abe Nobuyuki hands over all powers to the local representatives of the "Provisional Commission for the Independence of Korea (PCKI) ". Chairmanship of the PCKI provisional Government is taken by Lyuh Woon-hyung.
August 24, 1945 - Soviet Armies reach into Korea arriving in the city of Pyongyang. Power in the so created Russian Zone in Korea is handed by the Russian Army to the local PCKI Commissions in Pyongyang.
September 6, 1945 - The PCKI summons a Congress of "Local Peoples Communities" representing the traditional social fabric of the
You Tube Video: Unconditional Surrender of all Japanese Armed Forces aboard the Battleship Missiouri in Tokyo Harbor.
(former) Korean State and its Peoples and so establishes its claim to being a Legitimate State National Government. During this Congress the KCPI "National Government" elects a Central Committe which in turn then takes charge of forming the first quasi-Government structures which take on the name of "Peoples Republic of Korea".
An obviously non-Chinese but western-inspired and made Map of the Ching Dynasty Chinese Empire in the year 1910 AD, a year in which China's sovereignty has been under threat and siege for over 70 years.
In this Map of 1910 AD, made one year before the abdication of Last Ching Emperor Xuan Tong and the final end of China's Feudal History, China is depicted as in its smallest boundaries and definition. Most notably Manchuria, and Inner Mongolia, both territories nominally under Chinese Control and under Chinese Sovereignty are depicted as separate area's. Manchuria is the ancestral home of the Aisin-Gioro Clan of the Ching Dynasty.
Other interesting features of the Map and geography of the Time : after the Sino-Japanese war of 1899 AD, both Korea and the Island of Formosa (now Taiwan / ROC) have been annexed by the Japanese Empire.
Treaty Ports, around 80 in total dot the Map of China.
12 October 1910 - 105 Koreans, including many prominent Christians, educators and intellectuals are arrested on charges of conspiracy to assassinate the Choson (Korea) Japanese Governor-General Terauchi Masataki.
April 15Th 1912 - Birth of Kim Il-Song at Mangyongdae, situated near Pyongyang in Korea.
August 13 of 1912 - Major land-survey by the Japanese Government overseeing Korea starts. Among the goals; identifying land and land ownership in order to systematically raise taxes from the Korean people. The Land survey, carefully charting all of the Korean Peninsula continues until the year 1918.
July 28Th 1914 - The Start of World War 1.
January 18 1915 - Japanese seek further expansion into Chinese Territory, presenting a list of 21 Demands (対華二十一ヵ条要求 Taika Nijūikkajō Yōkyū) to the Chinese National Government led by former Qing Dynasty General and Commander of the Peiping Army Yuan
Shikai. Shortly thereafter Japan is forced to retract the demands after pressure from the European Nations of France, Britain, Germany and Russia.
Nevertheless a reduced set of "Thirteen Demands" was transmitted by the Japanese to Yuan Shikai on May 7th, again in the form of an ultimatum, with a two-day deadline for response. Yuan Shikai, competing with other local warlords to become the ruler of all China, was not in a position to risk war with Japan, and accepted appeasement, a tactic followed by his successors. The final form of the treaty was signed by both parties on May 25, 1915.
The Japanese Ultimatum and rumors of double-dealing in which Yuan Shikai was to be recognized as Emperor of China in return for the Treaty led to considerable public anger in China, contributing to the failure of Yuan Shikai to establish himself as Emperor and leader of a China. Eventually public anger would mount and culminate into the May the 4Th Movement of 1919. The Yuan Shikai rule as Emperor is brief as Nationalist and Province declare their independence from the "Central" Government. China descends into its "warlord era", while Yuan Shikai, now dubbed "The Traitor-General" resigns and dies within a year after.
Colonialism - 1912 World Map of Colonial Possessions & Trade Routes.
A Map drawing of the World depicting the Colonial Possessions as they were distributed in 1912 AD. Superimposed and marked in colors are subsequent changes in Influences Spheres, colonies and possessions due to World War I ( 1914 AD - 1918 AD).
Included in this Map are the main cities across the continents with their brief histories and events during the late 19Th Century and early 20Th century, where relevant. Marked in Colors for clarity are the various colonial and imperialist Nations. As relating to China; special attention is payed to so called Treaty Ports. The First Treaty Ports were forced open by Britain in the year 1841 AD, but counted over 80 in total by the end of the 19Th Century.
October 16, 1916 - Hasegawa Yoshimichi succeeds Terauchi Masataki as Governor-General of Korea.
November 7, 1917 - The Russian Revolution brings the Bolsheviks (Communists) to Power in Moscow and later in all of Russia, creating the Union of Soviet Republics a.k.a. the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R. / C.C.C.P.).
January 8, 1918 - President Woodrow Wilson of the United States of America sets down his 14 points, his view of a post-war world that could avoid another terrible conflict. In 1919 this leads to the creation of the League of Nations, the fore-runner of today's United Nations.
August 1918 - After major riots in Japanese Cities over the rising price of rice (and
inflation), the Japanese Government starts up a program for increased rice production in overcrowded Japan and on the Korean Peninsula (a colony of Japan).
November 11, 1918 - End of World War 1.
January 22, 1919 - Death of the former Korean Emperor (or King) Chojong, last Emperor of the Choson (Jeoson ; Hangul: 조선; Hanja: 朝鮮) Dynasty (1392 A.D. - 1897 A.D.). There was widespread suspicion that Chojong had been poisoned by the Japanese, accusations that are held credible by historians since previous attempts (the "coffee plot") were well-known. The Death led to public outrage and political organization among Korean students.
March 1st, 1919 - Rise of the "March 1st Movement" (a.ka. 3-1 Movement or Samil Movement, also Manse Demonstrations (Manse Undong ; Hangul: 만세운동; Hanja: 萬歲運動)); in part inspired by the Woodrow Wilson 14 Points Declaration and the suspected Assassination of the Korean Emperor Chojong.
At 2 P.M. on 1 March 1919, the 33 nationalists who formed the core of the Samil Movement convened at Taehwagwan Restaurant in Seoul, where they proceeded to read aloud the "Korean Declaration of Independence" that had been drawn up by the historian Choe Nam-seon and the poet Manhae (also known as Han Yongun). The activist are immediatly arrested by Police at the restaurant.
Large scale demonstrations ensued going accompanied by major strikes and the shutdown of businesses. The movement quickly spreads across the Korean Peninsula and continue throughout March and peaking in April of 1919.
April 9 of 1919 - The Korean Provisional (National) Government is created in Exile in the City of Shanghai in China. It is an open act of rebellion against Japanese Annexation and the Military Rule of Korea by Japan.
May 4Th, 1919 - Rise of the "May the 4Th Movement" in China after the conclusion of World War 1 in the "Treaty of Versailles" which against earlier promises assigns the German Colonies in Shandong Province not back to China but instead rewards them to Japan. The Chinese People feel betrayed, having fought alongside the victorious allies in the last stages of World War 1. On that same day public outrage ensues in China, leading to the first large scale student protest in the Northern Capital of Beijing. Regardless of warning by local authorities Students in Beijing take to streets en masse, finally marching to the Square of Heavenly Peace (Tiananmen Square) and the Gate of Heavenly Peace (TianÁn Men). The May the 4th Movement is born. All of China experiences a rise in Chinese Nationalism and an upsurge in anti-Japanese sentiments.
The "May the 4Th Movement" would simmer on long afterwards, eventually, among things, culminating into the establishment of the Communist Party of China (in Shanghai in 1921) and the establishment and acceptance of equal rights for women.
August 12, 1919 - Japanese Prime Minister Hara Kei organizes Japanese (Military) Rule in Korea under the slogan Nissen Yuwa meaning "harmony between Japan and Korea". Admiral Saito Makoto is appointed as Governor-General of Korea. Makoto starts his rule by implementing what is known as "Cultural Policy" which aims to eventually integrate Korea as a full province of Japan.
March 5Th, 1920 - The Korean Newspaper Choson Ilbo is founded in the city of Seoul.
April 1st, 1920 - the Korean Newspaper Donga Ilbo is founded in Seoul.
February 1922 - The Washington Naval Conference results in the establishment of a new post- World War 1 military and political order in the Pacific Oceans. Participants of the Conference agree on limits for (war) ship tonnage and a limitation on the number of naval harbors and their size. Japanese participation in the Washington Naval Conference demonstrates the rise of Japanese Military powers and in Japan is taken to be the starting point of a new "Internationalist" Era in which Japan becomes a major military and political player in the Pacific Regions, on par with certain European powers and American Naval power. Japan will soon break the agreements signed to in the Treaty.
September 1, 1923 - In the aftermath of the Great Kanto Earthquake (関東大震災 Kantō daishinsai) which strikes the Japanese Eastern Coast on that day (measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale), between 6600 and 20.000 Koreans are massacred by angry and distressed Japanese Mobs in the cities of Tokyo and Yokohama. Allegedly, according to Japanese rumors, Koreans were taking advantage of the chaos ensuing after the earthquake which was accompanied by a typhoon, massive landslides and a giant tsunami wave. The rumors of Korean sabotage and revolt were not proven but stated as facts in some Nationally distributed newspapers resulting a strong public response against Koreans and other ethnic groups residing within Japan. Around 700 Chinese, immigrants from Okinawa Island and others were also killed in the confusion.
June 1925 - Proclamation of the "Peace Preservation" Law signals a new wave of State sanctioned political repression in the State of Japan (and by law in Korea).
June 10, 1926 - Attempts to launch nationwide popular protests in Korea in accordance with the memorial day for late Emperor Sunjong's funeral are thwarted and remain unsuccessful. Political repression increases further in the aftermath of this affair.
February 1927 - The "Singanhoe", a united front organization for (all) Korean activists against Japanese occupation emerges. Founded on February 15th of 1927 the movement is compounded of both socialist and nationalist factions.
April 1927 - General Tanaka Giichi becomes Prime Minister of Japan ushering in an Era of strict military control of all layers of Government. Giichi immediately instates an aggressive National Policy aimed at both China and Korea. Communist movements within Japan are targeted as further oppression takes hold.
June 4, 1928 - The most powerful and most popular Manchurian Warlord, Chang-Tso Lin dies in the bombing of his personal train, an obvious Japanese organized attack on Chinese interests in Manchuria. Although removing a major obstacle to expansion of Japanese interests in Manchuria, the assassination further inspires popular outrage against Japanese Imperialism within China.
Later the Son of Chang Tso-Lin (and his loyal troops) will seek revenge and become one of the most outspoken Chinese figure-heads in the political battle for a nationalist war against Japanese invasion of Chinese Territory. At the highpoint of his career, Chang Tso-Lin Junior will capture and take hostage China's Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek in Xi'An (The so-called "Xi'an incident") over his refusal to actively engage the Japanese. Chiang is finally forced to declare War on Japan as the main term for the release of his person (and probably the saving of his own neck).
May 14, 1929 - Kim Il-Sung is arrested in Kirin (Today: Jilin City, Jilin Province, then also known as Yunki- See: Map Korea-Japan in 1945) in the now mostly nominally Chinese region of Manchuria for participating in a meeting of a Communist Youth League. Today this arrest is regarded as the first proof of political activities by the young Kim Il-Song.
October 24, 1929. Black Friday or "Wall Street Crash". The Collapse of stock markets in New York triggers a world wide sell-off and ensuing global economic depression.
November 1930 - Japanese Prime Minister Osachi Hamaguchi (濱口 雄幸) is shot by an ultra-Nationalist Japanese Rebel, just after attending the ratification of the London Naval Treaty. Death of the civilian Prime Minister puts an end to civilian political control over Government in Japan, giving way to an ultra-nationalist Military Rule.
May 15, 1931 - A split occurs in the Korean Nationalist Movement "Singanhoe" during its first yearly congress. Communist factions reject more moderate nationalist views. In the aftermath the Communists focus their attention on "grass roots"-work by organizing underground labor unions and politically mobilizing factory workers and the peasantry.
June 1931 - Governor-General of Korea Saita Makoto is replaced by Uzaki Kazushige; the earlier "Cultural Policy" versus Korea is abandoned and replaced by a policy of mobilization for the Japanese Military and supporting industries in moves preceding further Japanese military expansion in Manchuria, China and beyond.
North Korean Postcard depicting the snowcapped Changbai Shan holy mountain and the scene of the birthplace of Kim Yong-Il, the now deceased Leader and Son of founding Father Kim Il-Song.
May 2, 1944 - Birth of Kim Yong-Il (김영일), son of famed Korean Guerilla Leader Kim Il-Song is born, according to western historians in the Korean Refugee Camp near Khabarovsk in Siberia, where he father was interned / posted by his Russian Comrades. According to North Korean versions of history Kim Yong-Il (김영일) was born at Paektu-San (Chinese: Changbai Shan), the snowcapped Mountain on the Chinese-Korean Border which is considered sacred in Korean history (in both North- and South Korea).
August 8, 1945 - The Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) enters into the Pacific War against Japan. Russian Forces quickly move into regions which they consider of key strategic and economic interest including the formerly Japanese held territories in Mongolia, Inner-Mongolia, Manchuria
August 10, 1945 - First Russian Troops make air-landings in North-East Korea.
Asia Report - Colonialism - China Coastal Prov., Korea & Japan in 1945 AD
An accurate Geographic Map of the East Asian Coastal Regions of China (Republic), the Korean Peninsula, the Japanese Islands and associated Regions in the Year 1945 AD. At that Time large parts of Manchuria and Inner Mongolia remained under Japanese Occupation as part of the created State of Manchukou, while Korea was actually annexed and to be fully included as a Province of Japan.
Included in this Map are the main cities across the Chinese Coastal Regions, the Korean Peninsula and Islands with their names of 1945 and present day. Marked in Colors for clarity are the various colonial and imperialist Nations.
Included in the Map are Main Cities, Towns and Villages, sections of the Great Wall of China as well as main road connections, railroads, current day sites of tourist interest as well as some of the North Korean ethnic minority villages on the Sino-Korean Border.
September 8, 1945 - U.S. Lieutenant-General John R. Hodge arrives in Seoul, the former Capital of Choson (Korea) where he receives the surrender of Japanese Troops and officially inaugurates his new mission, the United States Militray Government in Korea (USMGIK) forming a second "Provisional Government" in the Korea's. Korea now finds itself effectively divided between a North and a South Korea.
19 September, 1945 - Kim Il-Sung and 66 other Korean Officers of the Soviet Army arive from Siberia at Wonsan (원산 ; currently part of South-East North Korea (D.P.R.K.). They are then demobilized.
September 29, 1945 - Local Communist Leader Hyon Chun-Hyok is assassinated in Pongyang.
October 8, 1945 - The Soviet commandery in North Korea call a gathering of "Five Peoples Committee's" divided equally between communists and nationalist and representing the five North Korean Provinces (Distinct Regions) leading to the establishment of the "Five Provinces Administrative Bureau" which is the first stage of the eventual establishment of a functional North Korean Government.
October 14, 1945 - Kim Il-Sung makes his first public appearance in post-war Korea at a political rally in Pyongyang City.
October 16, 1945 - The long working Korean activist and principal non-collaborator (one of the few) with the Japanese, Singman Ree, returns from exile arriving in Seoul, the former Capital of Choson (Korea).
From his very first days in Korea he works hard to enhance his public image, not avoiding offending the functional U.S. Army Government in (South) Korea USMGIK. As a nationalist Ree must agitate against U.S. domination and influence in order to further his political goal of becoming the President of the new Korean
State when it is (to be) established.
December 12, 1945 - Fearing Soviet influence or domination of Korea, the U.S. Military Government in Korea, holding power in much of the South declares the Peoples Republic of Korea, the Northern Government set up by the Soviets in their "sector(s)" "illegal".
December 18, 1945 - Kim Il-Sung becomes Chairman of the newly established Communist Party of North Korea.
27 December 1945 - The "Moscow Conference" (also known as the Interim Meeting of Foreign Ministers) held between December 16 and December 26, 1945, reimposes a "Trustee-ship" on all Korean Peoples.