History of Qinghai (青海) (5) under The Peoples Republic of China
Qinghai Province of China
In 1950 AD, the Chinese Peoples' Liberation Army launched an armed invasion into independent Amdo and Khamdo regions (Provinces) of Tibet, defeating a small but chanceless Tibetan armed force hurriedly assembled in defense of the Nation and laying the foundations for the establishment of Qinghai Province of China in East Tibet. Today's Qinghai roughly corresponds with the Chamdo Province of Tibet. It does so for mainly geographical reasons, as Chamdo lies considerably lower surrounded by mountain ranges.
TSETHANG BATTLE OF 1958 AD:
Regardless Chinese efforts to intercept and censor all information regarding the darker sides of local history, it is well documented that in 1958 AD a large battle was fought between Chinese troops and Tibetan irregulars near Tsethang, a market town south of the Brahmaputra river in south-east Tibet(Kham)(Perhaps not entirely by coincidence this remote village was also the village first reached by a group of downed American airmen in the year 1943 AD, as described in the book "Lost in Tibet" by Richard Starks and Miriam Murcutt). In the event, reportedly, a force mainly consisting of Khampa's (a Tibetan Minority) killed 1000's of Chinese soldiers and achieved a momentary victory for what was by then a sizeable and well-equipped rebel army.
1959 TIBETAN UPRISING - EVENTS IN TIBET AND QINGHAI:
In 1 March 1959 a large scale uprising occurred throughout all Tibetan regions in response to rumors of a Chinese kidnapping plot involving the whisking away of the Dalai Lama, the Nations spiritual Leader, to Beijing. Not long after the Dalai Lama fled to Nepal and India beyond - alledgedly with help of the C.I.A., establishing a Government in Exile, and leaving Tibet and the Tibetans -for the time being- under the rule and control of the Peoples Republic of China and its Government. Today, in the year 2014, this momentous event followed by a lenghty upheaval in towns and villages across all of Tibet is today still commemorated as an event of great significance, showing -among things- Tibetan unity in the face of great insults and attacks by their Chinese neighbors. Although eventually, this rearing of the Tibetan National spirit was brutally crushed by China's (so called) Peoples' Liberation Army, the 1959 uprising marks a historic highpoint in the confrontation between China and Tibet, a confrontation which lasts until this very day.
Today it is estimated that some 50 to 90 thousand Tibetans were killed in the 1959 Rebellion and its aftermath. Although officially, the Peoples Liberation Army could claim victory, in reality -even after 1960, the Tibetan Resistance remained agile and potent while at the same time Tibetan Rebels were being supported by Americans as they had been (apparently) since the year 1950 AD.
Mao Zedong and Chou Enlai enjoying Celebrations in Tiananmen Square with The People of Beijing.
In 1954 AD the first gravel paved road leading from Sichuan Province to Lhasa was opened. Today know as the Sichuan-Tibet Highway and recently turned into a tourist route (in the summer months only), the road opened up the first military supply route into Tibet and its Capital.
Accordingtovarioussources,amongwhich'CapturedinTibet'byRobertFord(London1958)British'agents' suchasFordhimselfadvised 'Feudal Rebel Forces in Chamdo Province (as they are dubbed in Chinese Propaganda Statements'(atleast)intheearly1950's.
Armed resistance broke out in Amdo and eastern Kham in June 1956AD. The rebellious Tibetan forces consisted mainly of Khampa's. Leader of the Khampa Rebels was one Andrugtshang, a son from one of the largest and most influential noble families in Kham Region (Province).
Lama also planned to attend. In reality, it was however also a flight from possible capture, kidnapping or bodily harm by the Chinese.
Unfortunately, altogether news and information about Tibetan Regions in the Peoples Republic is scarce. In addition, most historic information that has been recorded and has made it out to the world has come from what today is known as the Tibet Autonomous Region, i.e. the southern half of Tibet. Specific tales of the destruction of Monasteries, brutalities against the population and mass deportations, imprisonment and death are numerous. Specific locations of these are often hard to come by although others violations were done so public that many details can be related and sometimes even photo's exist.
A subject about which even less is known publicly is the "Tibetan War of Resistance" against the Chinese imposed rule, which flared and smoldered for over two decades.
After the demise of Feudal Rule in China in 1911 AD and the subsequent perversion of the 1st Republic of China, Tibet had chosen an independent path. Tibet remained for a large part untouchable behind its natural defenses of High Mountains for some 40 years. However, even before the Nationalist Kuomintang and the Communist had fully battled it out within the Chinese Provinces, the latter insisted on the inclusion of the Tibetans into their 'large family' of ethnic 'nationalities' even though they had been fighting the Tibetans ever since the days of the Long March of 1935 / 1936 AD.
History of Qinghai & Tibet 1949 AD to 1974 AD- 'Tibetans & The Peoples Republic of China Struggle' :
The 14ThDalai Lama fled theCapital for the first Time in 1950, travelingsouthtocross the border into Darjeeling of IndiathroughtheChumbiValley. However,oncetheretheDalaiLamahesitatedleavinghiscountryandthusendedupstaying. He stayed ataMonasteryintheChumbiValley until thesummerof1951 ADwhenhereturnedtoLhasainordertoserve'hispeople'intimeofdirecrisis. The faint hope was that they could still reach some kind of agreement with the Chinese.
At the same time a Chinese Governor-General was sent to Lhasa through India in order to assume Chinese Rule over the 'Tibet Region'.
On the 23rd of May of 1951, a seventeen point agreement was signed between, as the Chinese side holds it, representatives of the Tibetan Government and the Government of the People's Republic of China, re-uniting Tibet with 'The Motherland' and putting Chinese proposed policies into effect. In reality however, the agreement was not signed for the Tibetan side by the Dalai Lama, nor by the Board of Ministers. The agreement was signed in by Kalon Ngabo Ngawang Jigme, the military commander of south-eastern Kham Province, who thus effectively surrendered Tibet to the Chinese.
That spring of 1951, Mao had cleverly plotted that while the 'Tibet Delegation' were in Beijing, they were to be joined by the 10Th Panchen Lama who with his High Religious Importance might help tip the balance in the Chinese favor. When all were joined together they could finally be put on the spot and basically be forced to sign the 17-Point Agreement. Next, Mao and Zhou made sure a telegram was signed by all the Party, requesting the Dalai Lama, to implement the forced Agreement. As has been revealed in various sources on Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party leadership, although nearly complete autonomy was promised to Tibetans, these were really just empty words, used by Mao to gain cooperation and buy Time. The Plan had always been to 'unite every inch' of the former Qing Territories, and in reality ambitions were even larger than that. Mao and Zhou were already setting up a new Chinese Empire and influence sphere in Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia and other Asian Nations. The goal, although resisted almost all the way by 'friend and Comrade' Stalin, was to make China the leader of the Communist World, at least in Asia.
On September 9Th of 1951 AD, the first troops of the PLA entered Lhasa, the Capital of Tibet.
The 10Th Panchen Lama, Choekyi Gyaltsen, was recognized by the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso when they met in 1952 AD.
After seeing the results of the Tibetan holocaust with his own eyes during a 4 month tour through Tibet and hearing the victims tell the tales of their sufferings, even the Panchen Lama, who earlier (under considerable political strain) had declared some sympathy for the Communist Policies of (land- and social-)reform, was shocked. The result was a protest petition which the Panchen officially filed with the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the latter of which he had been made Deputy Chairman of in 1954 AD.
The powerful document was a clear indictment of just about any Chinese Policy which had lately been carried out in Tibet. Suddenly, the nominally democratic conference and committee had to face the results of the brutal suppression of the Tibetan People and all of their Culture during and after the Chinese invasion of Tibet. In May of 1962, the 10Th Panchen met in Beijing with Zhou Enlai in order to discuss a 70.000 character document, however this was only done to placate the Panchen and lure him in close. The initial reaction seemed positive, but neither Zhou Enlai nor Mao Zedong were in anyway concerned with the Tibetan fate. They had far bigger plans, and besides, the Tibetan Culture was regarded ignorant and superstitious. Mao and Zhou had bigger fish to fry at home as well. In fact, their own fate at the Top was in doubt.
In October 1962, the PRC authorities dealing with the population criticized the petition. Subsequently, 'Chairman' Mao called the petition "... a poisoned arrow shot at the Party by reactionary feudal overlords."
In 1964, the 10Th Panchen was publicly humiliated at Politburo meetings, dismissed from all posts of authority, declared 'an enemy of the Tibetan people'. After his dream journal (religious diary) had been confiscated and used against him, he was shuffled out of the public eye and imprisoned (until 1983 AD). Nearly until the end of the Cultural Revolution 'Red Guards' roamed the few cities in Tibet, terrorizing the local citizens. In their patriotic and political zeal they committed heinous atrocities that were suffered alike by unwanted elements throughout China. Chaos and terror were complete.
Foreign visitors could not reach China, let alone Tibet during the Cultural Revolution but even Han (mainland) visitors were rare and sparse. Practically the only 'tourist' were either High End Cadres, Politicians and some favored and trusted by the Chinese Government such as Israel Epstein. Chinese Books that relate of these visits all marvel at the progress made with the 'transformation of serf society', give wide accounts of Tibetan gratitude, describe the lives and functions of Tibetan Communist cadres and report of the crimes of the 'feudal' Tibetan system before the 'Liberation' of Tibet.
"Tibet Transformed", Published by Beijing Foreign Language Press
Although the Kokonor (Xining) region of Amdo was usually under direct or indirect control of the Chinese, the huge remainder of Amdo, U-Tsang and Kham were a completely different matter. Regardless whomever was nominally in charge, in practical terms anyone recognized as Han Chinese, especially armed forces could expect to be attacked, shot at and killed by clearly unfriendly Tibetan locals. As can be deduced from various persons accounts of travel to Tibet, foreigners of any kind where rather unwelcome within Tibetan Territories. Few got through. In fact, except for a few British Envoys, and an officially welcomed German Diplomatic Mission disguised as scientist, no one got in. Ultimately, the first foreigners to reach Lhasa and be allowed to stay were Heinrich Harrer and Peter Aufschnaiter, who miraculously survived the two year trek over the Himalayas from North India. The two only reached Lhasa on January 15, 1946 AD. Not much later, the American Consul was shot dead accidentally as his party attempted to cross into Tibet from 'Chinese Turkestan' (Xinjiang) in the North. The border guards had not received warning of their approach, opening fire and eliminating the Consul and two Russian helpers. A third was wounded and taken prisoner. This clearly shows the seriousness of the Tibetan ban on foreign visitors.
Large parts of what today is claimed by Tibetans as (once) independent Tibet, was a de facto 'no go area' for all but official Chinese Delegations who were invited and expected. Nevertheless, the leadership of the new Peoples Republic of China seemingly unanimously agreed that Tibet must be 'liberated'. From whom? Many of the reasons given at the Time mention the importance of Tibet to outside powers, meaning Britain, India, the United States and to a somewhat lesser degree the Soviet Union. As many Chinese citizens today understand the affair of that Time, China had to take Tibet before anyone else did or otherwise be exposed once more. One may call this the strategic motive. It seems acceptable to many Chinese even today that China moved first to protect its interest. Sovereign Tibet or not.
The second reason given might be called the political explanation. That is, many of the Chinese publications on Tibet, and motivations given for drastic reforms made throughout Tibetan Society over the last half century, emphasize the feudal nature of the original Tibetan Society and of how much good the socialist reforms have brought to Tibetan People who would otherwise have been the chanceless poor of the lower castes in Tibet. Although no one will deny the 'primitive' or 'feudal' nature of the Tibetan Society, it would be probably go to far to claim it was vicious, cruel, unhappy and unjust society. Although there are several well-known books describing many various accounts of Tibetan atrocities and social injustice, many if not all of them are written by Chinese sponsored authors, are usually published in China, and are either written by communist cadres or by foreign sympathizers of the Communist Party. In other words, people who might hold some form of bias. The most well-known foreign authors of such books are Anna Louise Strong, Hugh Deane and Israel Epstein. Many regard their writings as outright lies, gross fabrications and shameless propaganda although the writers claim to be fully genuine. Perhaps their claims cannot be fully be dismissed however it would go to far to discuss here the true value of them as historic sources. They distract from the real issue of Tibetan self-determination and of uncertain value are therefor left out of further discussions.
1) Israel Epstein in Yannan, the small Capital of the Shaanxi Soviet Base in 1936 or 37.
Gallery: 2) Israel Epstein, China's 1st Communist Party Member of foreign birth meets Old Friend and Comrade Deng Xiaoping, 3) Israel Epstein meets Hu Jintao and is rewarded for long-standing loyalties to the Chinese People.
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And that was certainly not all. In the 1960's the Cultural Revolution descended as a Dark Cloud over China and Tibet. All peoples, the Han, but especially the minorities suffered terrible indignities and destruction during this period (See also: ' History of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (5) Ningxia and The Peoples Republic'). A news black-out ensured that little news from within China, let alone Tibet, could reach the outside world. The Cultural Revolution was a period of especially terrific tragedy to Tibet (and thus Qinghai) as land-distributions and not much later communal living -entirely contrary to the nomadic lifestyle practiced in Tibet- were enforced. The nomadic peoples of Tibet were no longer allowed to roam. In addition, political re-education was introduced and Religion banned. As in other parts of China, ethnic dress was forbidden and everyone was made to wear the same style of clothing.
Subsequently, Red Guards and PLA Troops destroyed 99% of all 3800 temples and monasteries and many Tibetans were imprisoned, tortured or worse. Large groups of Tibetans were forcibly resettled in Chinese Provinces. (Only 17 Monasteries en Temples are left today although some have been 'restored'). Almost as if to ensure that earlier Tibetan dis-sympathies with the Han would reignite, the year 1960 also saw the conversion of Lhasa's holiest Temple Jokhang into a 'Cinema and Dormatory for visiting tourist' (H.Harrer 'Return to Tibet') as well as the Destruction of the Guardian Deity of Tibet, the 11-Headed Chenrezig at Jokhang Temple. Other victims of the wanton destruction were the tombs of the fifth through the ninth Panchen Lamas, which were destroyed by Red Guards (Today they have been 'rebuilt' by the Chinesecontrolledand un-recognized'tenth Panchen Lama' with a huge tomb at Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse, known as the Tashi Langyar) regardless of the 9Th Panchen's supposed sympathies for the Chinese reform proposals and socialist views. The Central Governments disconcern with aspects of Tibetan Culture and the value of its friendship could not have been demonstrated more clearly. A cultural as well as spiritual holcaust was unleashed in Tibet.
Meanwhile, beginning at some time during the 1950's, Chinese dominated East Tibet previously inhabited predominantly by the Tibetan, Mongolian and Hui Ethnic groups saw the first influx of a new group of migrants. These were the first Chinese (Han) political prisoners, the condemned Chinese from the cities, who were now sent to the ultra-remote mountainous regions of Tibet in support of Chinese policies there. The condemned were either real criminals, or more often those who had fallen victim to some sort of political campaign against perceived spies, traitors and counter-revolutionaries undermining the new Chinese State. Every new political campaign brought in a new wave of prisoners to be 'reformed'. They had lost out in a political game many never wanted, and now they were exiled. Exile meant being lucky or unimportant enough not to be shot, but being sent away for 'political re-education through labor', most expecting never to return.
One of the worst places to be sent was Qinghai Province (East Tibet) where life was harsh, dangerous and many perished in the nearly impossible circumstances of this still largely undeveloped region.
As for the National Policy dictated from the Central Leadership in Beijing, apart for the Peoples Liberation Army and the political cadres sent to re-educate and civilize the Tibetan Nomads, the large groups of prisoners sent from the cities were just an additional tool to make use of.
Their function of being in Qinghai (East Tibet) was two-fold and simple.
In the first place, as Mao Zedong put it: 'if their brains were not creating useful thoughts, then they could still be useful by providing their labor for the great good of the state'. Thus, as was done in the supposedly bygone days of Feudal Rule, the politically unruly were punished by turning them into slaves who could then build roads, tunnels, railroads or just anything else that was needed.
The Human toll was far less important to the leadership than any achievement made. Labor camps in (what today is) Qinghai Province had an especially high mortality.
Secondly, as (The Peoples Republic of) China had forcibly invaded Tibet encountering stiff resistance all the way from the local Tibetan ethnic groups, the Chinese clearly held but a thin grasp on the Tibetan Regions at the time. The majority of the population was entirely hostile to Chinese Rule, no matter how harsh the penalties exacted.
In this case, the prisoners might be useful as pawns as well. Not only could they literally build inroads with their bare hands paving the way for the Chinese Army, they might also 'make inroads' by flooding the regions with Han Chinese migrants in time rendering the dominant Tibetan groups a minority within their own lands. Thus, once more using Feudal methods, the Labor Camps (along with Peoples Liberation Army bases) became the de facto first Chinese settlements on the Tibetan plateaux. The camps could serve as support bases for the army, help construct infra-structure and so help build and solidify the Chinese position in Tibet in the long term.
YouTubeVideo:RareDocumentary on the Tibetan Resistance and CIA Operations in Tibet in Operation "Shadow Circus".
At the same Time the 14th Dalai Lama traveled to Kalimpong in India ostensibly in order to attend the celebrations for the 2500 year anniversary of the manifestation of the Buddha, which the 10Th Panchen
GREAT LEAP FORWARD IN CHINA AND TIBET:
The Great Leap Forward, a new policy entirely designed by the Great Leader and Thinker Mao Zedong kicked off in the year 1958. Yet, after a brief year of elation and grossly exaggarated results, the whole
undertaking turned out to be a badly thought through affair, which through the total mismanagement by the Communist Party and its many cadres resulted in the largest human drama in history.
In the beginning of the 1960's Mao's 'Great Leap Forward' (launched: 1958) culminated dramatically in the Three Years of bitterness when harvest failed across China and inflated idealistic targets had been proven un-attainable. The trouble that plagued the outlying regions were two-fold. After being forced to supply grain for China to sell on the world market, thus having the poorest peasants pay for China's 'modernization' and industrialization. These same regions were now 'pressed out' in order to satisfy the many hungry stomachs within the Chinese mainland where life should be as normal as possible. As (even) the Chinese Communist Party now admits, 10's of Millions of rural poor died like flies throughout China during this tragic episode. In the case of Tibet, large scale hunting in the region, the wholesale slaughter of animal herds and quite possibly ongoing measures for collectivation led to renewed frictions with the Tibetans.
CHINESE NUCLEAR PROGRAM, ATOMIC BOMB AND TIBET :
A SatelliteImage overview Map of the entireTibetanPlateaux including parts of bordering regions of Xinjiang-UyghurAR, Gansu Province, NingxiaHuiAR, Inner-MongoliaAR,Sichuan Province,andYunnan Province. Surrounding nations and Territories are: Myanmar (Burma), Bhutan, Sikkim, Nepal, Bangladesh, India, Kashmir and Pakistan.
This Map clearly defines Provinces and Regions, main mountain ranges, main rivers & lakes of the region, locations of main cities and landmarks.
On October 16Th 1964 AD China's first nuclear test detonation, dubbed project 59-6 occurred in the Mongolian desert not far from Jiuguan in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu Province, practically on the border of the current day Qinghai Province and the Tibet Autonomous Region. The device exploded was a crude uranium-235 implosion fission device based upon a crude Soviet design of which the basic blue-prints had been provided by the Soviet Union previous to the "great rift" in Sino-Soviet relations at the end of the 1950's. As an expression of this great rift and personal offense Mao Zedong had taken at it, Project 596 was named after the month of June 1959 in which it was initiated, which was immediately after Soviet Leader Nikita Khrushchev had suddenly decided to stop helping the Chinese with their nuclear program and other ambitious military and industrial developments.
The Date of Kruschev's announcement was on 20 June 1959. Typical to his stubborn and recalcitrant way of thinking, Mao immediatly ordered the nuclear program to commence and even be stepped up rather than accepting a setback. Regardless of the mass starvations (and subsequent mass uprisings) that had already occurred throughout the Nation as a result of mass collectivation and the so called "Great Leap Forward", the Nation would push ahead with its costly nuclear program for this, so it was held, was the only weapon that could deter the ever present Imperialist Enemies.
The result of the first Chinese Atomic Bomb test was an impressive atmospheric blast near ground level with a yield of some 20 kilotons of TNT, leaving a bulging mushroom cloud to climb into the upper reaches of the Atmosphere (more read: Jiquan Report - 'History of Jiquan (Suzhou District)'). Due to the naturally occurring winds in the region the cloud was swept eastward into Mongolia and China.
Much to the satisfaction of its ambitious Leadership and the Chairman or "Center" Mao Zedong, the succesful test made the Peoples Republic the 5th nuclear nation to emerge onto the world stage. This allowed its leadership greater world influence and was a resounding propaganda success at the home front. The great human price payed for the success remains under-highlighted since.
Interestingly, historic details that have emerged only as late as the year 2002, now tell of how the Tibetan Armed Resistance serving American interests were able to somehow observe the atomic bases built in the western regions and spy on the bomb development program. Although previously deemed highly classified information, details of C.I.A. operations in Tibet described in the book: "Into Tibet" by Thomas Laird reveal that with the help of the Tibetan Resistance (and possibly in conjunction with other sources), the United States Government was able to acquire a full 6 month warning ahead of China's first nuclear test. Altogether its is held that the Tibetan Rebels were able to provide invaluable atomic intelligence to the American side during the 1960's.
(Cynically, after U.S. President Richard Nixon established official diplomatic relations with the Peoples Republic of China, probably on demand by his Chinese counter-parts, he ordered all help to the Tibetan Resistance stopped. In what seems to have been a trade off, the Chinese then again allowed the United States to operate a "listening base (SIGINT)" inside the Peoples Republic. As was its world war 2 predecessor, this base targeted the activities inside the Soviet Union and was located near Khiwa (Urumqi) in what had by then become the Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China.)
After the first nuclear explosion occurred right on the outer northern rim of Tibetan Plateaux, further Chinese nuclear tests would be conducted slightly further westward in the Lop Nor Area, a dried up salt lake in a border zone between Mongolia and Tibet. China's nuclear development would become another issue to haunt the Tibetans later.
Altogether 45 Nuclear test were conducted in the regions between 1964 and 1996. With many of the first test being atmospheric blasts, subsequent fall out was spread out over a wide area according to wind pattern. As has only been revealed many decades later, the open air nuclear tests did great harm to the local, rural residents, most of whom were members of various non-Chinese ethnic groups of the far west. As local residents will seldom relate but have certainly heard of, until as late as 1973 AD; “There were days that earth fell from the sky, without wind or any sort of storm. The sky was deadly silent—no sun, no moon.”.
Although no one at the time knew about, and those who did chose perhaps wisely to remain silent or pretend to be ignorant, the earth and dust that fell from the sky was heavily radio-active and laden with various particles derived from the explosion. Thus, radio-active dust was inhaled and local crops contiminated.
Although until this very day the Chinese Government steadfastely refuses to
Satellite Image overview of the Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region as well as a large section of the northern parts of Tibet. Prominently featured in the bottom center is the sandy Taklamakan Desert which is bordered by the high Kunlun Mountain Range forming the border with Tibet. The location of Lop Nor is roughly marked on the Map. Prevailing winds generally are north-west or west to east.
aknowledge any negative effects of the nuclear program on the health of the local people, over time leaked information, statements and witness statements have painted an entirely different picture. Documents and information secretely shared by local doctors reveal a staggering increase in birth defects throughout the Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region after the year 1964 AD. In addition the frequency cancer cases in the regions have spiked, producing cancer variants that are usually related to radiation and exposure (malignant lymphomas, lung cancers, leukemia cases). Proven through medical documents smuggled out of the Peoples Republic of China, cancer rates in Xinjiang were 30 to 35 percent higher than the national average and remain higher than elsewhere even today.
When traveling around the Lop Nor Regions and the rim of the Taklamakan Desert as far East as Dunhuang (in Gansu) one may come across various abnormally developed individuals, of whom it is suspected many suffer from genetic defects caused by radition, which
X Lop Nor
You Tube Video: (Secret expedition to uncover the) Consequences of Nuclear Testing in China.
have subsequently been passed over the following generations leading to birth deffects, physical deformations, obscure degenerative disorders and unsual blood or nervous diseases.
Although again, the Chinese Government has attempted to censor all available information on this topic -specifically the matter of the exposure of the local populace- enough information has been revealed to establish that numerous people and families have suffered ill effects in the aftermath. Some case studies even go as far as to claim that several hundreds of thousands of people must have died as result of the 45 nuclear detonations which have occurred in this specific region.
Although no studies, data or numbers are available on neighboring Gansu Province, Qinghai of East Tibet and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, prevailing wind patterns make it likely that these regions suffered similar nuclear fall out and according effects.