China Report - Online Film & Video Library :
Before traveling to any location or destination within China (P.R.C.) you may find it useful to pick up some of the necessary backgrounds by browsing through DrBen's YouTube-Video Library. All the documentaries, video & film footage and other materials found, researched and filed by DrBen in the process of creating www.ChinaReport.com, his Full Travel Guide to China and beyond.
All information on Ethnic Minority Festivals anywhere in China !
Peoples Republic of China - Reference:
China Politics :
China's Politics Now !
Communism
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China's Communism
China & Travel on the Web
Go to Links & Info on Travel in China
* Dragon Line ON TWITTER: The Latest Updates on VISA to China, and Travel updates + regulations for Tibet, Xinjiang and other special Area's.
China Travel Updates - Latest incoming changes live out on Twitter !
* China Travel Trends.com: Inside information from China's Government and (Inter) National Travel and Tourism Industry. Know more, go visit !
Get inside the China Tourism Industry & find out the Regulations & News !
Click your Flag to Search in your Prefered Language
for Hotels, Holiday Packages, Air Fares, Car Rental, Properties and Destination Guides in China and worldwide through Hotels.com
China Hotel - Hotels in Cities in around China
China Hotel Listing -
List of Chinese Cities and their Hotels - direct price, information, services, photos of hotel and facilities, booking, etc
Beijing Hotel Reviews !
Reviews of Hotels in Datong, Shanxi
Ethnic Minority Groups in the Peoples Republic of China :
This page was last updated on: February 5, 2017
China, the Peoples Republic and Government :
History of China and the Peoples Republic :
The Peoples Republic of China is located in Eastern Asia on the Eurasian continent. It is one of the largest Nations in the world, just about equalling the United States of America in Size. In total the country takes up some 6.5 % of the total world land surface area. Although the Russian Federation is still the largest country on the planet, China is considered to be the largest All-Asian country and nation within Asia.
The Peoples Republic of China spans about 4500 kilometers from West to East, and 2500 kilometers from North to South.
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A Full Google Earth Supported Map of the PRC
Introduction to the Peoples Republic of China (Index / Menu)
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The Peoples Republic of China
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China Travel; Highlights, Monuments and Scenic sites of the Peoples Republic of China :
Capital of the Peoples Republic of China - Beijing
Surface Area / Size - Area: Between 9,596,961 and 9,640,011 km2 (3,705,407–3,722,029 sq miles) depending on territorial disputes and calculations.
Population - Estimated to be around 1.4 billion and stabilizing in 2015 AD.

View Larger Map
Map of Languages & Distirbution in China !
A Full and complete Map of China (PRC) identifying all Language Areas big and small in all Provinces and Autonomous Regions of China.
Map includes Turkic Languages (Uygur, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Salar & Uzbek), Mongolian Language and Sub-Divisions (Mongol, Tu, Daur and Dongxian), Tungusic Peoples (Oroqen, Evenki and Xibe) and Languages, Korean, Tajik (Tadzhik), Mon-Khmer (Kawa + Puman (or Pulang)), Hui, Uygur (Uighur), Tibeto-Bhurman Languages, Tai and Miao, Yao and She' Language Area's and Borders. Main Area's and sub-divisions of Han Languages (Northern Mandarin, Eastern Mandarin, South-Western Mandarin and Cantonese) further included. This color-coded ethno-linguistic Map (of 1967 AD) identifies at a glance most ethnic minority regions in China
Map China Ethno-Linguistic / Language Distribution China
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Main Rivers and Waterways of the Peoples Republic of China :
Capital Cities of Provinces and Autonomous Regions in the PRC :
Transport: Air Connections, Railways and Highways in the Peoples Republic of China :
Economy of the P.R.C. :
Climate in the Peoples Republic of China :
The Chinese Nation has a long history which left numerous historical and cultural monuments dispersed throughout the Nation. The most famous landmark in China no doubt is still the Great Wall of China which remains at the top of the list of the usual tourist itinerary. Other famous landmarks are Beijing's Palace Museum otherwise known as 'The Forbidden City', the political center of Tian'AnMen Square and the Olympic Birds Nest Station. Although their are countless other sites old, modern and brand-new, the most well-known other Chinese landmarks is the Three Gorges Dam, the largest hydro-electric project in the World.

Please refer to each province, city, district and location for more information, maps, backgrounds and instructions for easy travel. A Tip: Use our Maps for easy navigation between sites and locations !
The Climate in such a large country as the Peoples Republic of China varies significantly depending on location. In China one can find deserts, fertile river valleys and delta's, wide open grasslands, high altitude plateaux's and the two highest mountains in the World. Even each different part of the large Nation knows its own variations in landscape and climate.
Mainland China, the Peoples Republic of China is divided into a variety of Climatic Zones which differ remarkably from each other.

The North is dryer on average and knows cold winters often with abundant snow. Travel season in the North starts in early march, when slowly but steadily the average temperatures climb to a comfortable 20 ' Celsius. The summer months of June, July and August are hot with average temperatures between 25 ' Celsius to 30 ' Celsius, however soaring heat waves can drive temperatures up to 40 ' Celsius, making life especially in the cities difficult.
Starting in September the summer usually takes a long time to wind down, with especially in Beijing, comfortably warm days with nippy evenings and cold nights. This weather usually last into October, after a which a brief fall swiftly moves into winter. After the second half of October, temperatures fall to tops of 15 ' Celsius, with cold evenings and nights. Winters are cold with often icy winds.

In the Southern half of China temperature variations are often less pronounced and many provinces and regions have temperate sub-tropical and tropical climates. In the South summer months are (on average) slightly hotter than in the North, however winters are far warmer and less extreme. To give an idea; it never snows in the south, except for the most unusual of winters. In the southern city of Guangzhou temperatures hardly ever fall beneath 15' Celsius.
The monsoon or rainy season, which strikes mainly in south- and western China, returns yearly in the Months of July and August. In this period days are usually dry until in the second part of the afternoon, after which large down-poor's can occur. During the rainy season rivers will swell to their
The traditional pillar of the Chinese Economy is agriculture. Until very recently as many as 80% of all Chinese citizens were considered to be farmers. Most were poor to destitute, depending on their location and circumstances. Although the ambitious new Government of the Peoples Republic attempted to achieve a rapid industrialization of the country and thus a transformation of the economy, much of this failed due to political infighting, incompetence and (often deliberate) mismanagement at top levels. The cost of industrialization further marginalized China's farmers, however it introduction did help lay the foundations for a more modern nation. At the time of Mao Zedong's death in 1976 AD this was the factual situation. The Peoples Republic was third world nations consisting of farmers. Much has changed since. The first steps were taken by Mao's successor Deng Xiaoping, now much hailed for his introduction of the 'opening up policy' which eventually led to a transformation of economy, society and even culture.
The two most important rivers of the Peoples Republic are the Yangtze River (Jiangste Jiang) in the South, and the Yellow River (Huanghe) which mainly runs in the North. Both these rivers originate on the eastern part of the Tibetan Plateaux in Qinghai Province and their drainage basins comprise the majority of Chinese Territory today. The North of China is dominated by the Yellow River Basin of which the Ningxia Plain is just a small part, and the lower alluvial plain of the Yellow River.
The Central and Southern Provinces of China in turn are dominated by the flow valley of the Yangtze River (and tributaries).
Other main rivers in China are the Lancang River (Lancang Jiang) or Mekong, the Nu Jiang or Salween River, the Xi or Pearl River and the Tarim River.
Often identified as a Indian River, the Brahmaputra River originates in Tibet. Some 20% of the rivers' total length runs within The Peoples Republic of China.
Beijing, National Capital. Beijing is organized as an autonomous City Province, but is surrounded by and embedded into Hebei Province.
The dominant ethnic group in the Peoples Republic of China are the Han, apart from there are 56 more ethnic groups. Members of these groups have migrated to live throughout all Provinces and Cities, however until recently many of the Ethnic Groups lived often fairly secluded, withing their own ethnic enclaves and did not or sparsely intermarriage. Today, the officially autonomously administered regions reserved for the largest Ethnic Minority Groups and their main enclaves make up the majority of the total surface area of the Peoples Republic.
Chinese Provinces
Anhui
Fujian
Gansu
Guangdong
Guizhou
Hainan (Dao)
Hebei
HeilongJiang
Henan
Hubei
Hunan
Jiangsu
Jiangxi
Jilin
LiaoNing
Qinghai
Shaanxi
Shandong
Shanxi
Sichuan
(Taiwan)
Yunnan
Zhejiang
Autonomous Regions
Guangxi Zhuang
Inner Mongolia
Ningxia (Hui)
Tibet (Xizang)
Xinjiang-Uygur
City Provinces
Beijing
Chongqing City
Shanghai
Tianjin
Special Administrative Regions (SAR)
Hong Kong
Macau
Administrative Divisions: Provinces, Autonomous Regions & others :
Chinese Arts & Culture :
More background on Chinese Culture
The Chinese Nation has a long history, which according to some historians goes back over
12.000 years. The Peoples Republic of China was established on October the 1st of 1949 AD. Before the advent of the Peoples Republic the Chinese saw no less than 16 Dynasties who ruled for over 23 Centuries, starting as accepted by historians with the Xia Dynasty (2070 BC –1600 BC). It would go too far to describe all of it or even summarize this lengthy period on this introductory page. For a full quick summary of the History of China between 10.000 BC and the passing of the last Dynasty, the Manchurian Qing Dynasty in 1911 AD, please refer to the Summary of All Chinese Dynasties.
History of China Sources - China History
China History Online Sources Bibliography
China 5000 Years of History Sources -
All Online sources on China's long history used in the creation of this website. History of China's Empire and Dynasties. Timeline of all Dynasties, Dynasty Summaries, Warlord Era,Anti-Japanese War, Civil War, Communism and More.
History of China Sources - History of Hainan Island Province
History of China Sources - History of Qinghai Province
History of China Sources - History of Shanxi Province
China History Hainan Island Province
China History Shanxi Province
China History of Qinghai Province
History of China Sources - History of Tibet Autonomous Region
China History Tibet Autonomous Region
History of China Sources - History of Ningxia Autonomous Region
China History Ningxia Autonomous Region
Media: Chinese News & Press Agencies
NewsPapers & Press
Todays news about China, Online -
Report on the State of the Environment In China, year 2 0 0 2, by China (National) Environmental Protection Agency.
National report on the Environment in China 2002
Environment and the P.R.C. :
Directory China Historical Maps
China Maps Library
China Report - China Maps :
All Maps of Chinese Provinces & Parts thereof
To ALL Beijing Maps !!
China Maps Library
Directory of ALL Maps of Beijing and wider City Province
China Success Stories - Weekly News & Articles !
Usefull Chinese Governement Web Sites :
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Peoples Republic of China
Choice of Language !
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China Website
Permanent Mission of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations
Embassy of the PRC in Bern, Zwitserland
Basic Data, information, backgrounds and numbers on China, its 21 Provinces, 4 Autonomous Regions and 4 City Provinces.
By China.Org.Cn
More information, maps and images are added to this website weekly. Check back for recent updates or additional chapters.
China + Chinese Network
A Mobile Business Network from KLM !
Today's open and internationalizing world offers a variety of electronic options to maintain and or create business relations.
Keep in touch with your traveling Business Partners or make new Friends and Connections using the adjacent Internet Powered Networks, that have been tried an tested by ChinaReport.com & Staff.
First of all find China Report on Twitter as @AsiaReportcom and pay a visit to the China Report Club.
The China Report Club offers opportunity for China & DrBen Fans to share their questions, opinions or experiences through the China Travel Community on Facebook, The Tibet Travel Community on Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Google Plus, Pin It and an abundance of other channels !
AreAsia Business Network !
The new Friends Forum at China Report ! - Post your Messages and Hook Up!
Beijing Online Sources Bibliography
Beijing City Online Sources Bibliography
Xian (Chang An) Internet Sources Bibliography
Xian City Online Sources Bibliography
* The Netherlands China Startpage and reference Site.
China.pagina.nl - A Netherlands Startpage for China
Some listed sites are Dutch Language only, some are in English.
* Complete Reference Mothersite of "All " Internet Sites on China :
www.ChinaSite.com
China Business Resource, National Subjects, History and Travel and many other subjects. By ChinaDetail.com
Many Backgrounds on China Politics,Business,Travel and History
United States Central Intelligence Agency -
The World Factbook - China
Essential Basic Information on China.
Wikipedia - China -Peoples Republic of.
Publicly Edited Encyclopedia.
Includes links to More.
Wikipedia- Self to Edit Encyclopedia On China
Wikipedia - Republic of China - Taiwan
Necessary background information on the Island of Taiwan. Before 1949 AD an integral part of China and the Chinese Empire.
Includes links to More.
Wikipedia- on TAIWAN !!!
United States Library of Congress: - China , a Country Study.
US Library of Congress - Files on China.
Train Connections and Railroads in China:

Passenger seats on Chinese trains are divided into four diverent classes: hard seats and soft seats, and further hard sleepers, soft sleepers. The newly introduced high-speed trains range in a class of their own and are the most expensive and most luxury rides in the Nation. In addition, on number of shorter local tracks near large Coastal Cities dubbel-decker trains with soft seats and air-conditioned passenger spaces are in service. These represent the latest and future generations in Chinese trains and train travel.

Due to recent upgrades of railway tracks, the currently ongoing introduction of a high speed railway network throughout the nation, and the construction of a multitude of new lines in every province and region has changed the time-schedules for train travel within the nation dramatically. At the moment trains are increasingly competitive with air-travel within the Peoples Republic. This situation is only expected to improve.

Beijing to Xi'An 1165 Km
Beijing to Shanghai 1462 Km
Beijing to Hong Kong 1644 Km
Beijing to Guangzhou 2313 Km
Shanghai to Guangzhou 2129 Km
Shanghai to Hong Kong 2311 Km
Shanghai to Xi'An 1511 Km
Kunming to Dali 365 Km
Kunming to Chengdu 1100 Km
Kunming to Guilin 1425 Km
Geographically speaking China borders on the Nations of Central, East and South-East Asia.  Neighboring Nations of Central Asia are Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgystan, Kazakhstan, and the Russian Federation ('Russia').

Neighboring Nations of East Asia are the Republic of Mongolia, the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea), the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Japan, and the
Beijing
The current Peoples Republic of China counts 22 Provinces, 5 Autonomous Regions (AR), 4 City Provinces (Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin) and the Peoples Republic of China further claims sovereignty over the island of Taiwan which today functions independently as the Republic of China (ROC).

The largest Province in the Peoples Republic of China is Qinghai Province which covers a surface area of 721.000 km2 (278.000 sq miles). The smallest Province on the other hand is Hainan Island Province (Hainan Dao), which lies of the southern Coast of China and covers 33.920 km2 (13.100 sq miles).
Apaprt from the 22 Provinces there are a further 5 Autonomous Regions, three of which are larger in size than the largest Chinese Province, Qinghai.
The Five autonomous regions are in order of size:
1) Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region, measuring a whapping 9.630.960 km2 (3.718.530 sq miles) in size.
Map China 22 Provinces + Autonomous Regions + Capital Cities
Quickreference and Navigation Map for All Provinces & Provincial Capitals in China, including Autonomous Regions, City provinces, Hong Kong SAR and Taiwan (ROC). This color-coded geographical Map gives a schematic overview of the locations and borders of all 22 Provinces within the country of China and gives the name and location of each Provincial Capital. Further included are all 4 Autonomous Regions (AR), 3 City Provinces (Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin) and their Capitals. Map includes links to City or Province level subjects.
Click to go to Map China !
In support of our In-Depth information on Chinese Provinces and Cities, as well as articles on landmarks, monuments and hotspots, www.ChinaReport.com includes a large variety of Maps of China, the Peoples Republic of China, and parts there of.
Please browse around each Province and City to find the appropriate maps for that area. Or simply head to the China Maps Index Page to choose your category; general maps, maps of provinces and autonomous regions, historical maps, geographical maps or ethnographical maps.
Directory China Maps of all Provinces & autonomous regions
To ALL Beijing Maps !!
Directory of ALL Maps of Lanzhou and wider City Prefecture
China Report - City Maps :
Republic of China (Taiwan).

South-East Asian and Southern Asian Nations that share land- or maritime borders with the Peoples Republic of China are the Philippines, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Bhutan, Sikkim, Nepal, India, and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The Yellow River, Yangtze River, the Lancang (Mekong) River and the Salween River all originate in South-Western Qinghai Province (Tibet) and the last Three of these flow through a scenic region known as the 'origin of (the) three rivers' into Sichuan and Yunnan Province beyond.

The Fifth largest river in China is the Tarim River (塔里木河) which runs exclusively in Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region. It was and is the principal river and watersource of the Region. Recently however, the Tarim River has fallen dry for the majority of the year.

Another important Chinese River which is often overlooked is the Heilongjiang or Amur River. The Heilongjiang River runs in remote territories along of Manchuria and continues inside the Russian Federation reaching a length of 4444 Kilometers (2,763 Miles), making it the ninth longest river in the world.
A schematic Map overview of the flow of some of the main rivers in China and South-East Asia, the Yellow River, The Yangste, the Mekong, the Salween and the 'Indian' Rivers of Brahmaputra (Yarlong), Ganges and Indus.
The most important and famous of all rivers in China is the Yangtze River, which with its 6300 kilometers (3,917 Miles) in length ranks third in the list of the world's largest rivers, only surpassed by the Nile and the slightly shorter Amazon River. The Yangtze River is world famous in poetry, literature and cinema for its wide and often tumultuous flow, its scenic three gorges and lately the largest hydro-electric Dam project in the World, the aptly named 'Three Gorges Dam'.
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China Report - Schematic Map of the Yellow River Flow Path 01A
A Full Schematic  Map of the entire flow path of the Yellow River. Map overviews Qinghai Province, Parts of Sichuan Province, Gansu Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, parts of the Republic of Mongolia,  Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Shaanxi Province, Shanxi Province, Henan Province and finally Shandong Province,  giving a Full Overview of the length of the Yellow River. Clearly visible details of geographical features such as mountain ranges, rivers, valleys and lakes. The Map includes main cities along the River, popular and famous scenic spots, the dams and water reservoirs on the Huang He and other relevant informations.
Click the links to find more information on each individual location !
Click Map to go to Full Version !!
China's second largest River, rivaling the Yangtze in Fame and Status is the mighty Huang He (黃河) or Yellow River, which is named after the abundant (loess) silt carried downstream by its waters. The Yellow River originates on the Tibetan Plateaux in what is today Qinghai Province of far Western China, from which it flows down to carve through the loess plateaux of Central-Northern China and through several turns reaches the North China Plain before emptying in the Bohai Sea, a journey of 5.464 kilometers (3,395 miles). The Yellow River is especially significant to the Chinese as its lower reaches (today's Henan and Shaanxi Provinces) were historically the birthplace or cradle of the earliest (Han) Chinese civilizations. It was on the banks of the Yellow River that the first recognizable Chinese Kingdoms and later Empires were nursed. Only later the culture and civilization was carried to wider regions. The name Yellow River first occurs in 'The Book of Han' which describes the history of China under the Western Han Dynasty from 206 BC to 25 AD. It could therefor be said that the Yellow River is the 'oldest' river in China.
As with the Yangtze River, the Yellow River is famous for a variety of historical or scenic sights. However, the Yellow River meets the Great Wall of China at several locations adding another dimension to its historical and cultural importance in China.
For full information on the Yellow River, go to its dedicated Chapter :
There are too many minor and smaller rivers to list on one page. For complete information refer to each individual Province or Autonomous Region for further information.
To ALL backgrounds & information on the Yellow River !
Traditionally the three largest lakes in China are Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake and Qinghai Hu, also known by its Mongolian name of Koko Nor. This situation is however changing with the filling of the three Gorges Dam Reservoir, which is expected to grow into the largest fresh water 'lake' or storage in the Peoples Republic. Several other dams have been constructed elsewhere with similar results.

For now Poyang Lake is listed as China's largest fresh water lake. It is located entirely in Jiangxi Province, originates from the Yangtze River and covers a surface area of (officially) 3.585 km² and has a total volume of 25 km³. Overuse of water, water diversion and other forms of mismanagement, combined with drought years have recently decreased the size of Poyang Hu significantly. The average depth of the lake is shallow at only 8 meters.

Dongting Lake is another large and shallow fresh water lake originating from the waters of the Yangtze River. Only slighly smaller than Poyang Lake (depending on season!) it is located within Hunan Province and normally is around 2.820 km² (data before 1998) in size. However, during the monsoon season (May) abundant rainfalls throughout south-western and western China will accumulate in the Yangtze River to be caried downstream into the Dong Ting Lake. At these times the Lake area is used as an important water-buffer and its size may increase nearly ten-fold to measure up to 20.000 km² in flood season. Due to the sediments caried downstream by the Yangtze River at this time, Dongting Lake is a shallow lake.
Historically Dongting Lake is famous in Chinese culture as the place of origin of Dragon boat racing and thus the Dragon Boat Festival. It is the site of Junshan island, and is a home to the Finless Porpoise, which is endangered in China.

The Qinghai Lake is the largest Salt Lake in China, as well as the highest lake in the Peoples Republic. It is located on the eastern rim of Tibetan Plateaux within Qinghai Province.
Among the various ethnic minority groups in the Peoples Republic of China a variety of Languages are spoken. The dominant language is Han Chinese, after which follows the Uyghur Language, Mongolian and variations of the Tibetan Language.
Official Language groups in China are the Sino-Tibetan language of which the Han Chinese language is only one, the Altaic Languages, the Indo-European language of the Tajiks and other 'European' minorities, and the Austro-Asiatic languages spoken in the South. All language varieties and dialects within the Peoples Republic of China resort under the above.

It would go too far to describe all ethnic groups in detail on this page. For more In-Depth information on each of the 56 Ethnic Minority Groups in China, please refer to Chapter on Ethnic Minorities in China.
More background on ALL Chinese Ethnic Cultures
More background on ALL Chinese Ethnic Cultures
For more In-Depth information on the lenghty history of China and the Chinese Peoples, please browse through our Online Sources Library, arranged by subject and period.
Or browse the History of China by Province and Region where available. Please check the below listing or browse the History of China by Province and Region where available. Please check the below listing to find the Province of your preference.
Today's Political System has been characterized by its ruling party, the Communist Party of China, as socialism with Chinese Characteristics. Although theoretically other parties are allowed (and were present in the immediate post-revolutionary era) China today has a one party system in which only the Communist Party is allowed to function. The headquarters of the Communist Party of China are located in the City of Beijing, which is the political Capital and Administrative Center of the Nation.

For sources, backgrounds and articles specifically on Chinese Politics, (Chinese) Communism and Chinese Political History, please refer to the below section of the China Report.
Highways and Road connections in China:

Recently, in the 1990's as well as since the turn of the millennium the Central and Provincial Governments have invested massively in large scale infra-structure projects. A Nationwide highway network has largely been completed, connecting every Provincial Capital as well as every district or county Town in the Peoples Republic.
For travel specific information on each highway and road connection please go to the main menu of each individual Province, Autonomous Region or Territory for up to date information and Maps. The most elaborately described provinces even feature special dedicated chapters on the various modes of Transport within the Region, describing the most important highways, provincial roads and tourist preferred routes of Travel.

For more information, please refer to the dedicated Chapter on (Public) Transportation in the Peoples Republic of China.
So far, the China Report includes detailed reviews and summaries of several important Dynasties from Chinese History. Browse the below List go directly to the available information on each period.
A summary of the Ming Dynasty (1368 AD - 1644 AD)
Consize Summarized History of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD)
Consize Summarized History of the Zhou Dynasty (1121-255 BC)
Short History of the Dawn of Civilization during the Shang Era ...
The Complete Time-Line of the Qing House and Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty (618 AD - 907 AD) saw one of the most prosperous, inventive and culturally rich era's in Chinese history. During its reign period the Silk Road flourished as never before. Click through to our summary of this important period below.
The Shang Dynasty (1766 BC – 1121/1046 BC) saw the emergence of the first fortified Cities, while during the Lengthy Zhou Dynasty Han Chinese territories descended into Chaos and War, yielding the Confucian, Taoist, Zoroastrian and other Philosophies and ultimately the first unification of 'China' under the Ch'In Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC).
China's last feudal Dynasty where in fact Foreigners. They were the Qing descended from non-Han Manchurian Tribes. The Qing Dynasty ruled from 1644 AD to 1911 AD, after which a popular revolution saw the birth of the First Republic of China. Read the complete time-line and summary of all reign periods of the Qing Dynasty, and a second page on Islam in China during the Reign Period of the Qing, click below button.
Review of the History of the Islamic Faith during the Qing Dynasty
History Sources - Chinese Dynasties :
Consize Summarized History of the Ch'In Dynasty - Coming Soon !!
After the removal of the hated but successful Mongol Yuan Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty Era (1368 AD - 6144 AD) saw the re-emergence of a unified China under Han Chinese rule. During this lengthy Dynastic Reign Period Chinese civilization, culture and science reached a number of new high-points, seeing the among things the rise of the City of Beijing as the National Capital, unprecedented overseas connections due to the works of Admiral Zheng he and his treasure fleets, and the reconstruction and fortification of the Great Wall of China, many parts of which survive to this very day. For a initial summary of the Ming Dynasty Reign Era, please follow below link button.
The Peoples Republic of China knows a wide variety of landscapes. From Desert to High Mountains and everything in between.
The North- and North-East of China is dominated by the Basin of the Yellow River with its dusty Loess sediment and consists mainly of hilly loess landscapes, wide and large high plateaux and grasslands and in the coastal area's alluvial plains. Although some visitors find the North to have the least interesting landscapes, they can nevertheless be very impressive. Some of the landscapes, in particular the wide grasslands of Inner-Mongolia (AR) are unique to the Northern Regions.

The South and the South-East of China are considered to have the most impressive and beautiful landscapes, and to have been blessed with the best climate and most fertile lands. Much of the South is dominated by the Yangtze River, the worlds third largest. The eroded landscapes of the south contain much relief, mountains, high plateaux and deeply carved river valleys. Due to the mild climate and relative abundance of water many of the southern regions are fit for raising rice crops, which over the centuries has transformed the landscape. The most famous of these regions with rice-terraced hill-sides are found near Guilin in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, a region which is also famous for its eroded karsts rock river landscapes and grottoes.

In the extreme South-West the most important features are the Himalayan Mountains, the highest mountain range in the world and the Tibetan Plateaux. In the far west lies Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region which as the largest single territorial unit of mainland China knows its own set of landscapes and climates. The South is dominated by the sands of the Taklamakan Desert surrounded by various high mountain ranges, whereas the North of the very large region consist of High altitude plateaux's, mountains and various depressions with Lakes.
Brows the Arts &Culture section of the China Report for any information on Cultural Subjects. Currently available are backgrounds on Chinese Ethnic Groups, Religion and Philosophy, Theatre - especially Peking Opera and Kunqu, Chinese Cinema and Film, Tea and Tea Culture and finally Modern Art and Contemporary Art in China.

More subjects and more In-Depth information will be added overtime.
Newspapers:

Anyone who cannot speak or read (mandarin) Chinese will have to miss out on the content of most Chinese newspapers. The only alternative is to rely on Foreign Language newspapers, which are usually available in large Cities, at luxury Hotels, and a large stations. Most Foreign Newspapers are in the English Language, as is the leading National English Language Newspaper, the China Daily (see: www.ChinaDaily.com.cn). China Daily is often available for Free at large (international) Hotels. Especially in the most modern parts of China on the East Coast and in the South, other foreign newspapers can be found on sale at Hotel Shops, news stands and small stores in international area's and Central Business Districts. In more remote regions such as Inner-Mongolia AR and large parts of Western China finding a foreign newspaper for sale can be difficult or impossible.
Newspapers often found are the Hong Kong based South China Morning Post, the International Herald Tribune and the Asian Wall Street Journal. More and more international newspapers are now marketing themselves in China, including French, German and Russian news agencies.
All Information on Internet in China, Great Fire-Wall, Filtering and Availability !!
The Internet in China, Getting Online -
Magazines:

China as a rapidly modernizing Nation is awash in magazines of all sorts and subjects. As could be expected, the majority targets the national market and is thus printed in Chinese language. However, a growing number of International Publications is now available in China, their circulation increasing yearly. These were in the recent past first and foremost, Time Magazine, News Week, Readers Digest and the Far East Economic Review, but lately many others have entered the Chinese Market. Forbes Magazine is now widely available in China, as is the Women's Favorite Elle and of course Cosmopolitan. All of these now have their very own Chinese language issues.
A magazine you will likely not find on sale in China is Playboy. Due to Chinese norms and values, this and similar magazines are (as yet) not acceptable for large scale public sale.

To find Magazines, head to any major or often minor Bookstore, Foreign Language Bookstore, International Hotel or main shopping street or CBD Business district.
In remote and often impoverished regions no foreign language magazines are on Sale, except in the largest City.
Television:

Today nearly every worthwhile Hotel Room in China will have a color television set. Only budget Hotels may not have such facilities.
In General there is a multitude of Chinese language channels available, however until recently there was no English Language Chinese TV channel. This has changed since the late 1990's when international hotels in China first started offering CNN and HBO channel in International Hotels intended for foreign visitors. Since, other international news channels such a BBC World (service) and Al-Jazeerah have joined the ranks.
In a bid to counter the growing influence and market of foreign media, the Chinese Government and State Television (CCTV) then went ahead and launched China CCTV-9, the English language International issue of the Chinese News and Television actualities. CCTV-9 is now available nation-wide and is even transmitted worldwide through satellite channels.
In the most recent development, China further launched dedicated Spanish- and French-language television broadcast. No doubt others languages are to follow.

Other television broadcasts in China are entirely local and their availability depends entirely on the Province of your location. In many remote Provinces and regions, televisions will broadcast in several non-Chinese languages. Ethnic Television Stations transmitting in Tibetan, Uyghur, Mongolian or other Ethnic Languages of the Peoples Republic are common in outlying Provinces. Although often difficult to follow, the may give unusual insights into otherwise secluded life's and life-styles.
Internet:

Today nearly all international hotels and many smaller establishments have Internet available, often in-room. Apart from this Internet is widely available through China's numerous Internet-Cafe's. Nearly every City, Ton and even village will have an Internet Cafe' where cheap connections are available. Additionally, one can connect to the Internet, often wireless, at Mc Donald's and KFC Outlets, most airports, several modern and large stations and other Public Facilities.

Getting online in China is no longer a problem. Censorship however is. For various reason the Chinese Government has decided to control and censor the Internet and Internet access within China. The system used for this is popularly known as the 'Great Fire-wall of China'. Among things it operates by denying access to 'unwanted information' such as pornography or politically sensitive issues. For this reason several popular Internet services have been 'banned' and are inaccessible from China (without bypassing the Great Fire-wall, which is relatively easy). For instance: YouTube.com is unavailable in China and Twitter is also banned in China. Although many break the Ban and Chinese twits are abundant on twitter regardless, please keep in mind: technically sending Tweets means breaking the Law.

The entire Internet or partial services may become unavailable entirely during Times of political instability. For instance: Internet was only recently restored to Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region, some 10 months after deadly riots between ethnic groups in this region. Likewise, Internet access is highly controlled within Tibet Autonomous Region, a region with repeated unrest which requires a special visa for entry and travel.

For a full overview of all information on Internet in China and related subjects, please refer to the dedicated chapter :
China Ministry Environmental ProtectionChina Ministery Environmental Protection-Official  Website
China Ministry Environmental Protection PRC.
All information on how to get around in China by (various modes of) Public Transport !!
All information on how to get around in China by (various modes of) Public Transport !!
Click Map Image to Enlarge !!
largest size, often taking out rivers and breaking through dykes or embankments. Travel through the country-side may carry extra risks due to unpredictable and frequent landslides.

Generally speaking therefor, the best times to travel to China are in spring and autumn. Summers are simply considered too hot in the North, and too hot and too moist in the South. However, this by no means implies that the summer cannot be a pleasant time for a trip. Depending on location and plans, many attractive destinations are still available. During the summer period the mountainous regions of Tibet AR, Qinghai and Manchuria are increasingly popular tourist destinations.
Winters in China, although cold can be interesting periods for travel. Especially the City of Beijing and its Palace Museum are remarkable in snow. Winters in the South see no snow nor freezing and travel is usually comfortable.

Special climate advise should be taken into account when visiting the high altitude destinations of Lhasa and Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, and mountainous parts of Northern Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region. The desert regions of the Gobi Desert in Inner-Mongolia, North Shaanxi, Ningxia and Gansu Province and the Taklamakan Desert are notoriously treacherous for travel, especially when off the beaten path. Don't under estimate the challenge and prepare well.

For travel purposes, climate depends on the period and month of the year chosen, location, topography and altitude. Refer to each Province and location for specific information.
Beijing - Capital of China (PRC)
Guangzhou - Capital of Guangdong Province
Shanghai & City Province
Lhasa - Capital of Tibet
Xi'An - Capital of Shaanxi Province
Zhengzhou - Capital of Henan Province
Kunming - Capital of Yunan Province
Urumqi - Capital of Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region
Shenyang - Capital of Liaoning Province
Harbin (Haerbin) - Capital of Heilongjiang Province
History of China Sources - History of Jilin Province
China History Jilin Province
For more information, please refer to the dedicated Chapter on (Public) Transportation in the Peoples Republic of China.
Macau (SAR)
On average the Chinese economy has grown by 9% each year. Since the early 1990's the Chinese Economy has seen an unprecedented boom. For years on end the Chinese Economy has grown by a steady 13% per year and often more. Only recently, since 2009 AD a global meltdown of world financial markets has dented the impressive Chinese economic advance creating novel problems for the Government.

Today the Peoples Republic of China has one of the largest National economies in the world, surpassing Japan as the largest Asian economy. China's largest and most important trading partner is the United States of America,which still holds the title of the largest economy in the world.
The Chinese economy is mainly based on manufacturing, offering its abundance of cheap labor to the world market. As a result many foreign industries have moved their manufacturing operations to China, creating a huge influx of foreign investment and capital, as well as 100's of thousands of jobs for Chinese citizens.
On the downside however, manufacturing is
Overview of the Gross Domestic Product in China, as divided by Province. Clearly, the crowded coastal provinces are far ahead of the rest. Today inland and western provinces remain among the lowest ranking in income and other economic criteria.
usually very energy intensive leading to huge rise in the demand for energy within China. Although the Chinese Government is rapidly trying to shift to more energy efficient use, as well as cleaner production of energy, it large dependence on coal as fuel for has already taken a huge toll on the environment and public health nationwide, and quite likely beyond. Other environmental woes such as air-, soil and water-pollution are also rampant.
Despite of it's huge stores of coal and its wide availability, the Peoples Republic is a net importer of energy with a growing demand each year. In the year 2003 the Peoples Republic of China became the largest oil consumer and the largest oil importing nation in the world. It has held this position since.

In order to secure its energy supply as well as access to much needed raw materials, the Peoples Republic of China maintains close economic and political relations with a number of countries in Asia, Africa and South America. In Asia among these are Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia and Iran and central Asian nations of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and the Russian Federation. In Africa Chinese trade and influence are widespread and large, close contacts include Sudan and Angola. In South-America China has increased ties and investments in oil-rich Venezuela, and is a large trading partner of Brazil, with an abundance in raw materials. In the pacific Australia is another important trading partner.

An oddity of the Chinese Economy is that Taiwan, officially seen as rebel province by the Government in Beijing and in the past frequently threatened with military action, is one of the largest trading partners of the Peoples Republic of China. Taiwan (the Republic of China) also contributes about half of the yearly foreign investments in China. Many Taiwanese have homes in southern Chinese Provinces of Fujian and Zhejiang, and these Provinces are the main focus of cross-strait contacts and economic interactions.

Although the Peoples Republic of China has seen a remarkable economic rise, which is still holding momentum, large internal economic problems remain. The most notable of these are the huge economic inequalities within the Nation. Where eastern and southern coastal provinces have often developed fast and reached reasonable affluence, central and western provinces often remain under-developed and impoverished. Where salaries in coastal provinces may have risen dramatically, life in more remote regions often remains as is, regardless of the gargantuan government investments in infra-structure. Although progress is being made, farmers still often live a survival lifestyle. Lack of social security and insurance are other problems that are being worked on.

For more information, please refer to the dedicated pages on the Economy of the Peoples Republic of China, or Check each individual Province or Region for locally relevant information or go to below reference sites (also bottom of Page).
Reviews of Hotels in Datong, Shanxi
A Satelitte Image of The Peoples Republic of China, with super-imposed the borders of all prefecture level administrative divisions. -Click Image to Enlarge -
2) Tibet Autonomous Region with 1.228.400 km2 (474.300 sq miles) in surface area, much of which high mountains and uninhabited.
3) Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region, with a total surface area of  1.183.000 km2 (456.800 sq miles)
4) Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, with a total surface area of  236.700 km2 (91.400 sq miles), and last 5) Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, which with its total surface area of  66.000 km2 (25.500 sq miles) is the smallest Autonomous Region.

The smallest administrative unit within the Peoples Republic of China is Macau, which due to its historic background as a Portugese Colonial possesion is ranked as a Special Administrative Unit (SAR) and measures only 29 km2 (10 sq miles). In comparison, nearby Hong Kong (SAR) is about 400 times larger.

Please browse the below list of all Provinces an Territories and follow the links to each section for more information, backgrounds, photos and maps on your location of choice.
Ulaanbataar, also Ulan-Batar, Capital of the Republic of Mongolia.
Beijing - Capital of China (PRC)
Shanghai & City Province
Hong Kong (SAR)
Haikou, Hainan Special Economic Zone
This page was last updated on: February 5, 2017
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