History of Tibet AR (西藏自治区 or Xizhang) of China / S-West Tibet :
Tibet Autonomous Region is a Chinese Region with a unique history as it was only absorbed into The Peoples Republic of China in 1959 AD. Until 1950 AD, when a Chinese Military campaign into East Tibet took place, Qinghai Province and Tibet Autonomous Region did not factually exist other than as an inseperable part of the Tibetan Region and The Nation of Tibet.
As can be easily deduced from the adjacent Map, the official history of Han Civilization started out with the Shang Dynasty (1766 BC - 1121 BC), with 'cities' developing in the lower regions of the Yellow River, at quite some distance from Tibet and the Himalayas. First sporadic contacts with the Tibetans were likely made earlier, but the first cooperation, trade and communications started in earnest during the Zhou Dynasty (1040 BC 256 BC) as by the Time of the Warring States Period (475 BC - 221 BC), Lanzhou (today in neighboring Gansu Province) near the border of Tibet had become a Han Chinese military fortress and a Taoist
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Map Tibet Historical Borders
A Schematic Map of Historical Tibet, today Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and a part of Sichuan province.
Included for reference are current International Borders, provincial borders, locations and names of main cities and towns, main rivers and lakes, mountains, important Tibetan-Buddhist Monasteries and other places of significance.
Further Reports link to More Photos and History & Backgrounds of each City, Town or Ethnic Community of Yugur, Dongxiang Tibetan, Lhoba, Kazakh, Mongol or others where available.
Today Tibet only exists as Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Tourist visits require an aditional visa !
Apart from these issues as a background, Tibet Autonomous Region and especially Eastern Tibet (Qinghai Province + Sichuan Province) have a rich and long history in connection with the Han Peoples and other peoples of the Region through the Silk Road and other trading paths of the wider region. Contacts ran South to Burma and India, as well as Westward with the many nomadic Peoples of central Asia.
First contacts with the Han were established very early during the Warring States Period but were further developed after the rise of China during the Chi'In Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC) and succeeding Han Dynasty (206 BC - 221 AD). As the Han Dynasty's Chronicles record, among the first commodities traded from Qinghai was its abundant salt. During the Western Han Dynasty Era the salts derived from the Tibetan Plateaux were bought by the Han and then transported and sold to the Capital of Chang'An (Xi'An) and surrounding territories, today Shaanxi Province, Shanxi Province and Gansu Province.  From that period onwarsd the salt-trade which linked the Tibetan Plateux with the Chinese heartlands grew wider. It would go a bit too far to discuss the developments in detail but
Schematic depiction of the main pathways o/t silk road passing along the north-rim of the Giant Tibetan Plateaux and the secondary path bypassing the Hexi Corridor through Xining.
'Qinghai' , is best understood as a Province when viewing a 3D Relief Map of the entire region of Tibet making up the vast proportion of the lower lying regions of the Tibet Region with the largest populations. in the Past these regions were identified as the Tibetan Provinces of Amdo and Kham.
'Qinghai' then was first created as Qinghai in the 1920's and became a province under the second Republic of China in 1928 AD, after Chiang Kai-Shek took power over the Kuomintang 'National' Party.
Subsequently parts of it fell under control of the so-called Five Ma's or the Ma Clique of Warlords (who annexed the Hui dominant parts on and along the eastern rim of the Tibetan Plateaux).

The Tibetans regarded it as a part of independent Tibet. This was the situation until one of the earlier decisions of the establishing Government of the Peoples Republic of China once more named Qinghai as a Province of China. From this and other issues, a conflict arose with the then functional and nominal Government of Tibet located in Lhasa.

In may of 1935 AD Communist groups who are part of the Long March and include the Leadership find themselves trapped between the Min River, the Dadu River, the Yangzte and the Jinsha River. The so called second army of the Rebel Communist Forces under He Long moved through the North-Eastern corner of Yunnan Province northward along the Jingsha River into (Eastern) Tibet, current day South-East Qinghai Province. The first army group which includes Mao Zedong stays more westerly traveling Northward through Sichuan Province.
Xining, Qinghai Province
Dunhuang, Gansu Province
Jiuquan, Gansu Province
Zhangye, Gansu Province
Wuwei, Gansu Province
Kashgar, Xinjiang-Uyghur AR
Urumqi, Capital of Xinjiang-Uyghur AR
Survivors of the 2nd Army's march through Tibet account harrowing tales of disastrous and fast changing climate in these sparsely inhabited regions, hunger and major strife and war-fare with the Tibetans. According to them, upon entering the grasslands the Commissars warned the troops that the Tibetans would be deeply suspicious of them. As their story goes, the Tibetans, who were illiterate, were often cheated by the Han Chinese Traders they depended on in the region. Another more practical reason lay in the fact that most Tibetans were desperately poor, and with only one short summer they had to protect their harvest and life-stock from the hungry red armies, or otherwise likely perish during the next long winter.
However, as the Tibetans were pressured by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek in Nanjing, and threatened by the actions of the Hui Warlord Clique of Gansu Province (who were annexing parts of Tibet in what is now Qinghai Province) the Communist Party Leadership let the troops know that they saw a chance of winning over the Tibetans if only the troops behaved themselves properly.
Thus, the propaganda teams set to work and slogans such as 'Tibetan & Han workers and peasants unite to sweep away the Nationalist Warlords' were carried along.

On July the 6Th of 1935 AD the village of Takster or Hongya Cun (红崖村) in Amdo Region of Tibet (today South-East Qinghai's Ping'An County of Haidong Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (海东地区)), saw the birth of one Lhamo Döndrub, who according to Tibetan Religious Beliefs was found to be the re-incarnation of the Dalai Lama, a 'Living Buddha'. He lives today as Gyalwa Tenzin Gyatso or H.H. the 14Th Dalai Lama and is widely respected and revered by Tibetans and others around the World. The Tibetan Government in Exile is located in Dharamsala, North India.
YouTube Video: Tiananmen Square in 1989 AD, immediatly after the Funeral Service for 'reformer' Party Secretary Hu Yaobang.
Although the Chinese thought they might finally get the Tibetans on their hand again and under control since technically the Panchen is higher in Religious Rank than the Dalai Lama, the return visit developed in a completely un-expected and quite sensational way.
The First thing that caught the Chinese by surpise was the sizeable number of Tibetans who showed up, all had turned out, and a stampede nearly ensued when the Panchen Lama was allowed to see his People. Although subjected to 30 years of religious oppression, intimidation and more heinous crimes, none of the Tibetan Faith had faded. On the contrary.
When subsequently the Panchen went to Tsuglagkhang, the Holiest of Temples in Inner-Lhasa for religious rites and proclaimed its Golden Throne to belong to The Dalai Lama only,  an uncontrolable exhilaration swept through the people present and then the City. The Chinese were left baffled. (The Panchen was carted back off, and obviously not useful only returned in 89 to die at Shigatse. Some rumors hold the Old Lama was murdered).

However, at some Time in 1983 AD once again the Tides of politics seemed to sway against the Tibetans. On the 24Th of August 1983 AD and again on the 27Th and 28Th of that month, large scale arrests took place in the City of Lhasa in neighboring Tibet Autonomous Region. Altogether some 500 Tibetans were rounded up. Of those arrested several were tried on trumped up charges and later executed (Source: Amnesty International).  In early October 1983 AD six Tibetans were executed for 'criminal activities'. Chinese promises once more proved empty, and as far as Hu Yaobang's visionary proposals went, it seems rather the opposite was done. The political repressions
In early august of 2009 AD parts of East Qinghai saw a micro-epidemic and scare of the bubonic plague (yersinia pestis), a relatively rare but lethal infectious disease also known as the 'Black Death' for the skin lesions involved.
The provincial government quarantined the small town of Ziketan (near Xinghai) with a population 10.000 souls. The first patient was a 32 year old nomadic herdsman who died not much later. In total three people in Qinghai are reported to have succumbed to the bubonic plague, all relatives of the first patient, and another 11 people were confirmed infected with the deadly lung infection and sickened during the course of the plague scare.
The government moved to quarantine the town and started wide-scale disinfection operations which were succesful in preventing further spread of this airborne disease.

On April 14Th of 2010 a 6.9 scale earthquake struck the Yushu County and wider Qinghai Region devastating Towns.
On April 17Th of 2010 His Holiness the Dalai Lama issued an official statement ('His Holiness the Dalai Lama Eager to Visit Earthquake Affected Area';April 17th 2010)
in which he requested permissions to enter Tibet in order to be able to visit, support and comfort the victims in the stricken Yushu Area. Regardless the Official 'Five Principles' Statement many times repeated by the Government of The Peoples' Republic of China, the important request went un-answered by anyone official in Beijing. To this date (May 12Th, 2010), no official answer has been given by 'Beijing'.
For more Information on the History of Qinghai as a part of the Region of Tibet, please read:
'History of the Tang Dynasty (618 AD - 907 AD)'.

As stipulated by the Government of the Peoples Republic of China in the Section 'Tibet as an inseparable part of China' part of the document 'Tibet - The 'Roof of the World' , from the series China - Facts & Figures ; ISBN: 7-119-01259-2 / Z502 and Published by Beijing Foreign Language Press (BFL) in 1990 AD, Beijing :

"Historical changes and Development
China is a united multi-ethnic country that has been formed through longstanding cooperation between Hans and Tibetans, Mongolians, Uygurs and many other nationalities. Friendly contacts between the Tibetan People and the people of other nationalities, mainly Han, began long ago.

In the early 7Th Century, Tibetan National hero Songtsen Gampo unified Tibet and founded the Tufan Regime, with Lhasa as the capital. Songtsen Gampo paid great attention to the advanced production technologies and outstanding political and cultural achievements of the Han People and sent envoys to the Tang Dynasty Emperors to seek marriage alliance.
In 641 AD Emperor Taizong sent special envoys to escort Princess Wen Cheng to Tibet to marry Songtsen Gampo. Then the Tang Emperor sent a large number of Han craftsmen to Tibet, which promoted the development and the economy and culture of Tibet."

(The Tang Military Missions on the Silk Road were not exclusivily reserved to this path of the Silk Road, however.  Apart from this main and northern route, there were several other connections. In fact, trade routes lay as a web across Central Asia connecting the various cities through multiple parallel pathways.
Hence. the Tang set to work on securing and controlling these as well.
Around 634 AD, South Gansu Province, the Qinghai Eastern Part of the Tibetan Plateux (including Gansu and current day Qinghai Province) was subdued. Next in the line of the rolling Tang Miltary Machine were the Peoples of Tibet who had only recently been unified under the Rule of Songtsan Gampo.

On the grassy plains around Kokonor the Tibetans were no match for the Tang Military and highly powerful crossbow, the mountainous regions were an entirely different story. The Himalayan Mountains provided a good defense for the Tibetans, however the Han held sway over the most fertile regions. Thus, in the long run victory for the Tibetans was far from assured. The Tibetan King Gampo (Qizonglongzan in Tang Dynasty Records), hearing of the favored treatment for cooperating Tang subjects and how they were able to marry Tang Princesses, decided to opt for the easy way out. In an offer of virtual surrender and subtle diplomacy the King requested to marry a Tang princes.
Earlier in 624 AD, however Gampo had subdued the Domi people who had been subjected by to the Tang Throne just beforehand. Furthermore, before making his smooth diplomatic offer, Gampo had moved 200.000 Men in position to threaten the Tang Dynasty City of Songzhou.These acts were not easily dismissed by such a strong Military Man as Emperor Taizong and Gampo was initially turned down by the Tang Emperor.
Oddly, after the Tibetan Army had carried out its threats and attacked Songzhou but was repelled by the Tang, the Chinese Emperor went ahead and granted the wish to surrender. But only after Gampo had groveled and utterly humiliated himself in apologies for the whole affair.
Songtsan Gampo, the Tibetan King would go on to conquer and unite more of Tibet and a part of current day Sichuan Province under auspices of the Tang Emperor. (The area's conquered today still have Tibetan speaking Minorities.) When he finally died in 649 AD, he was a valued Tang Asset in the Region and thus received a condolence letter from the Tang Emperor himself (650 AD).

The Tibetan heartlands were accessible through steep mountain passes from the South Route of the Silk Road out of the Taklamakan Desert, as well as from the newly conquered territories of Gansu and Qinghai. The Tibetan Territories held valuable Jade Sources and Salt for cooking and medicines. Even more importantly the Valleys of Southern and Eastern Tibet held vital grazing lands needed for the many War Horses of the ever advancing and growing Tang Dynastic Armies.
Hence, the Tibetan Peoples were to be included into the Tang Dynasty Empire by brute force.
This eventually opened up a new arm of the Silk Road, a Trade Route passing directly over and across the Himalayan Mountains through Tibet and Nepal to link up with North-India. This southern arm of the Silk Road would become a valuable source of Jades and other precious stones so loved by the Tang Culture. (Tibet however would be lost to the Tang and have its own Dynasty in 763 AD, however the Tang would regain control in 851 AD.)

Next up, adding more trade road and therefor taxation rights to Tang Control were the Tribal States of Bhutan, Sikkim and what today is Nepal. This pacified nearly the entire Himalayan Mountains Area (except for Yunnan !), laying the Tang Borders and Defenses at the very outer passes, points easily defended against further invasion. Within flourished a booming Trade in both directions and many new ethnicities, cultures, beliefs and religions were included in this vast Empire.

In the same expansion South new area's in North Afghanistan including the Trading Cities of Balkh (Mazar-I-Sharif), Termez (named Thermos under Alexander the Great) and Kabul had been taken. Furthermore, in North Pakistan and on the North Border of Bangladesh further Tribal Area's and Kingdoms had been subdued. This was no small feat as this includes the Karakoram Pass, one of the highest mountain passes in the world. At the other side of the Mountains the City of Peshawar, on the way into India came under Tang Military Rule. Notably, only Bhurmese Territory and the current day Province of Yunnan the home of annoying and fiercely fighting Tribal Peoples and a rugged high mountainous area had not been conquered.

"In 710 AD responding to the request of King Chide Zugdan of Tibet, the Tang Emperor Zongzong sent Princess Jin Cheng to Tibet to marry him. Afterwards they often sent envoys to each other."

Conveniently forgotten by the Chinese Document is the Capture of the Tang Imperial capital of Chang'an (Xi'An) in 763 AD by Tibetan Troops. The City was only briefly occupied and spared ruin because of the Peace Treaty that was signed between the Tang Court and the Tibetans. As can still be found written on a Stele (Doring) in front of the Potala Palace in Lhasa, at the Time the Han Chinese promised to pay a yearly Tribute of 50.000 bales of Silk to Tibet. Or else.
In Fact, this Stele is only one of three such Edicts eventually signed by the Tang Court.

Regardless of the First Edict and the near sacking of Chang'An, anymosity remained high and so not much later in 765, Chang'an was once more besieged, however this time by an even bigger army brough together by the alliance of the Tibetans and the Uyghur Khaganate.

Tibet and China eventually agreed on the treaty of Ch'ing-shui in 783 AD, which established the boundary between the two countries as the Tatu (Dadu) River (in current day Yunnan Province);  all land in the Kokonor region west of T'ao-chou was to be ceded to Tibet.

"In 821 and 822 AD the envoys of the two Governments met twice in Chang'An (present day Xi'An) and Lhasa to form an alliance and created a tablet that is still in front of  Lhasa's Jokhang Monastery today. The inscription on the stele describes the friendship between the Han and the Tibetan People.
In the middle of the 9Th Century, Tibet was split because of internal conflicts. The King of Tufan was assassinated by religious believers. Since then Tibet was divided into numerous Tribes that fought eachother for about 400 years".

To be more correct: The Stele originally erected in front of the Jokhang Temple indeed states that between the two nations “…the very world ‘enemy’ shall not be spoken” It however contains a more important clause regarding the frontier (historically near the present Gansu-Shaanxi border) which makes clear that “All to the East is the country of Great China; and all to the West is, without question, the country of Great Tibet.”
The Great significance of the Stele does not lie in the so-called Friendship' but in the fact that the agreement was reached after yet another Tibetan Victory over the Tang Armies. It was basically a Tibetan Edict of Independence. Thus, it is one of the most important historical 'documents' in Tibet today.
Interestingly, although the Stele (Schol Doring) was not destroyed during the Cultural Revolution, it was moved from its original location and can now be found much more to the East of the Potala, enclosed by a massive brick wall. Thus, it cannot be read what is on the Stele, and the Chinese translation of events is fed has been used extensively, eventhough it is clearly false.

"In the middle of the 9Th Century, Tibet was split because of internal conflicts. The King of Tufan was assassinated by religious believers. Since then Tibet was divided into numerous Tribes that fought eachother for about 400 years".
The Chinese Government Document 'Tibet as an inseparable part of China' further states :In the middle of the Fourteenth century (1300 to 1400 AD), the Yuan Dynasty was replaced by the Ming. In regard to Tibet, the Government of the Ming Dynasty (1368 AD - 1644 AD) basically followed the administrative method of the Yuan. According to statistics from the Board of Rites of the Ming Dynasty, about 3000 to 4000 Tibetans came to the capital (Beijing) to pay their tribute each year in the 6Th decade of the 15Th Century. During the 300 year rule of the Ming Dynasty, the Tibetan and Han Peoples lived in harmony, promoting the stable development of the country.
Still according to the Chinese Government Document 'Tibet as an inseparable part of China' : "After the Qing Dynasty fell in 1911 AD, the imperialists attempted to train trusted followers in the higher ruling group to take advantage of the Civil War in China's inland and instigate the fight for the independence of Tibet. However, this attempt to seperate Tibet from China was frustrated by the Tibetan People and other patriotic personages of China."

What is not mentioned by the Chinese Governments document from 1990 AD is that in 1911, upon the declaration on the First Republic of China under Sun Yat-Sen, the Tibetan Government, then under Leadership of the 13Th Dalai Lama, expelled all Chinese Government Officials from Tibet, making Tibet de Facto Independent. Tibetan Independence was then declared.

Thus, as many Tibetans claim and hold true today Tibet was its own Boss for at least 40 years. As 'Students for a Free Tibet' describes it; "until the Chinese invasion of 1950-51, Tibet enjoyed full sovereignty as defined under international law: it had a territory, a population, a government exercising effective control, and the ability to enter into international relations (such as the 1914 Simla Convention with Britain, trade delegations to the West, and neutrality in World War II).
"In 1253 AD, Emperor Xianzong of the Yuan Dynasty (officially 1271 AD - 1368 AD) sent troops to Tibet to end the confusion and unified Tibet. (The fact was a direct betrayal of the Tibetans who had been offered allegiance by the Mongolians against the Han in China in 1228 AD. At that The Rulers of Tibet were inclined to respond positively however their emmissary, an important 'Lama', fell ill during the long and difficult journey, passing away at Lanzhou in 1228 AD.)
From then on Tibet fell (nominally) under the jurisdiction of the Yuan Dynasty and became a part of China
(Note ChinaReport.com :  China was at that Time a Mongol Territory known as the Cathay Khanate. This made China part of Mongolia). In 1260 AD Kublai Khan made the Sagya Leader Basaba the State Tutor (later the Imperial Tutor (in China at the Court in Khanbalik=Beijing) .
Historic Map - China (Qing) Empire in 1910 AD
An obviously non-Chinese but western-inspired and made Map of the Ching Dynasty Chinese Empire in the year 1910 AD, a year in which China's sovereignty has been under threat and siege for over 70 years.
In this Map of 1910 AD, made one year before the abdication of Last Ching Emperor Xuan Tong and the final end of China's Feudal History, China is depicted as in it's smallest boundaries and definition. Most notably Manchuria, and Inner Mongolia, both territories nominally under Chinese Control and under Chinese Sovereignty are depicted as separate area's. Manchuria is the ancestral home of the Aisin-Gioro Clan of the Ching Dynasty.
Other interesting features of the Map and geography of the Time : after the Sino-Japanese war of 1899 AD, both Korea and the Island of Formosa (now Taiwan / ROC) have been annexed by the Japanese Empire.
Treaty Ports, around 80 in total dot the Map of China.
Map of China - Ching Dynasty Empire in 1910 AD
The 5Th Dalai Lama had payed a court visit to Beijing under the 1st True Qing Emperor Shunzi (1652 AD) .The 5Th Dalai Lama stayed at Court in Beijing for two Months, teaching in Lamaist-Buddhism and Establishing close and warm Relations with the Manchu Qing, who were themselves followers of Tibetan Lamaist-Buddhism. The Tibetans were among the Five Main Ethnic Minorties of the Ching Empire and their country was a vital trading partner as well as a strategic region in the then Western Territories of China and Borders. To illustrate the great importance of the visit of the Tibetan Lama King over for instance the European visits, in advance of the arrival of the Dalai Lama in Beijing, a gigantic White Marble Dagoba was constructed within the Imperial Pleasure Park of Beihai, in clear sight of the Entire City and Imperial Palace Grounds. It still stands Today as a lasting Monument to the eventful visit.
(Read More in: History of Beijing (3) "Beijing during the Manchu Qing Dynasty".)

Again as stipulated by the Government of the Peoples Republic of China in the Section 'Tibet as an inseparable part of China' part of the document 'Tibet - The 'Roof of the World' , from the series China - Facts & Figures ; ISBN: 7-119-01259-2 / Z502 and Published by Beijing Foreign Language Press (BFL) in 1990 AD, Beijing :
"From then on the positions of Dalai and Bainqen were confirmed by the Central Regime (I.e. the Chinese Emperor confirmed the Titles much after the choices had been made in Tibet autonomously)".

By the Time of the Qianlong Emperor (Reign 1735 - 1796 AD) of the Ching Dynasty (1644 AD - 1911 AD) the Shanxi Merchants and their various monopolies had made Shanxi Province the wealthiest province of the prospering nation, together owning far more cash money in silver teals than the were contained within the Imperial Coffers. The Emperor was almost a beggar in comparison and thus the Bankers held much sway behind the scenes. To give an idea of their importance; Shanxi Businessmen controlled trading as far as Dunhuang in far Western Gansu Province, and organized Camel Caravans to reach further along the Silk Road to Xinjiang and well into area's now part of the Capital of the Republic of Mongolia. In the wake of their trade Chinese Han Culture, new technologies and Shanxi's Financial Influence followed.. Thus, the knowledge and influence of the Shanxi Bankers was of Great
Qinghai and Tibet during the Ming Dynasty:
Qinghai and Tibet during the Qing Dynasty (1644 AD - 1911 AD) :
Continuing the Chinese Government Document 'Tibet as an inseparable part of China' states : "In the middle of the seventeenth century, the Qing Dynasty (1644 AD - 1911 AD) replaced the Ming Dynasty and strengthened the administration of Tibet. Emperors Shunzi and Kangxi conferred in 1653 AD and 1713 AD the titles Dalai Lama and Bainqen Erdini (Panchen Lama) of the Gelugpa sect on the two Living Buddha's." Mind you, Dalai Lama means "Ocean of Wisdom" and is a Mongolian granted title.
As further stipulated by the Government of the Peoples Republic of China in the Section 'Tibet as an inseparable part of China' part of the document 'Tibet - The 'Roof of the World' , from the series China - Facts & Figures ; ISBN: 7-119-01259-2 / Z502 and Published by Beijing Foreign Language Press (BFL) in 1990 AD, Beijing :

"Five Principles
After the Democratic Reform in 1959 AD, and especially since China's reform and open policy in 1979 AD, the economy and culture of Tibet have developed rapidly and people's living conditions have improved gradually. But a few separatists have created disturbances to cooperate with Dalai's separatist activities. Since September 1987, several disturbances have broken out in Lhasa because of the advocating for Tibetan Independence by the Dalai Lama in the United States and other countries, in his attempt to win the support of foreigners for his separatist efforts. In spite of this, the five principles for the Dalai Lama and his followers issued by the central Government (of The Peoples Republic of China) continue in effect.
They are as follows:

1) China has entered a new period with a long-term stable political situation and a continuously prospering economy. All nationalities of China will unite and support one another in this period. Dalai and his followers are bright enough to believe this or they can wait for several years and see.

2) The Dalai Lama and the men he sends to meet us should speak frankly (honest) and sincerely and not beat about the bush. We will not be tangled with the incident of 1959 AD, which is history and should be forgotten.

3) We earnestly and sincerely welcome Dalai and his followers to come back and settle in China to safeguard the unification of the country, to strengthen the unity of the Han and Tibetan peoples and of the people of all nationalities in China and to realize the four modernizations of our country.
(Deng Xiaoping; Four Modernizations introduced in December 1978 at 3rd Plenum of the 11th Central Committee: Agriculture, Industry, National Defense, Science and Technology)

4) After returning to China, Dalai's political and living treatment will be the same as before 1959 AD. The Party Central Committee will suggest to the National People's Congress that he (the Dalai Lama) be allowed to continue as a Vice-chairman of the NPC Standing Committee and, through consultation, be the Vice-chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. He can stay in Beijing and not go back to Tibet and not hold concurrent posts in Tibet. At present the young cadres in Tibet have done a good job in their posts. Of course, Dalai can visit Tibet at any time. Proper arrangements will be made for his followers, and its unnecessary to worry about their lives and work. They will lead better lives than before because our country has made great progress.

5) When the Dalai Lama wants to come back to China, he may make a brief statement to the press saying whatever he wishes in the statement. When we receive notice of his intended return, we will send a ministerial-level official to meet him at the border if he comes back through Hong Kong to Guangzhou. At the same time, we will publish the news.

These Five Principles will not change and are the consistent principles of the central government. We hope that Dalai Lama will put the interests of the Tibetan People first and acts as he thinks appropriate."
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By late July all four armies of the Communist Rebel Forces were traversing through what today is the Qinghai Plateaux in Qinghai Province. In the end the Fourth Army stayed within Tibetan Territories for the longest period. During this period in July and August of 1935 AD, the Fourth Red Army led by Zhang Guotai succeeded in helping Tibetans in their region set up their own Independent Communist Base (or Soviet), still seen today by the Chinese Communist Party and Government as the 'Tibetan Peoples' Republic' or 'The Peoples Republic of Tibet'. According to its constitution, this 'Peoples' Republic of Tibet' was (to be) an independent socialist Nation (so, not connected to China other than by ties of Friendship) with its very own Army (presumably The Tibetan Peoples Liberation Army), equality and autonomy for all Nationalities in the Territory and last but not least, full Tibetan Independence.  The constitution did include a clause obliging the Tibetans to eternal friendship with the Communist Party of China and to provide food and aid to their army.
Thus, the year 1936 was the first year of existance of independent Socialist Tibet, according to idea's shared by (some) Tibetans and the Communist Party of China. Unfortunatly however for all idealists involved, as soon as the 4Th Red Army was
forced to move on and left the Tibetan area's, the old Power-brokers moved in dealing quite swiftly with the communist sympathizers left behind.  The Islamic Hui warlords , the Ma's were back, cooperating with Tribal Chiefs (land-lords and serf-owners in the view of the Chinese) eradicating the recently built communist network. Many Tibetans, including their families, were killed brutally.
Oddly the work had not made the Chinese Communist Party leadership happy neither. That is, the person held responsible was Zhang Guotai, who in fact had disagreed with Mao Zedong's so hailed thought and had planned to start his very own Communist Base in opposition to Mao Zedong small but clever and ambitious group. The disagreement on where to move to establish a new Base area so direly needed by the decimated Communist Rebels was cause for a total split in the Communist Party as the ever authoritarian and peasantly stubborn Mao insisted on carrying on the -up to then disastrous- Long March north (to Shaanxi Province).

Zhang Guotai probably was honest in his wishes to Liberate Tibet and befriend it, but likely less so with the promises of independence. Through setting up a Base area in Tibet and creating an independent Base, he also created a safe area for himself to fall back on. In case Zhang Guotai could not reach top Leadership over the Party, he might start his own new Party, or even his own competing country. If the Red Army went west eventually, ending up in- or near Qinghai, Zhang would be at an advantage over Mao since he had organized the Political Structure of these regions.
However, none of this ever materialized even though Zhang tried hard. Not much later the desperate situation of the army and its supplies led Zhang Guotai to undertake actions, planning a raid on Mao Zedong, his camp and command group. Mao would have been killed and the Long March terminated if it weren't for the ever occurring Chinese story of betrayal in the ranks. Zhang Guotai's attempt at seizing power within the party and rescuing what was left of the armies from what he thought was a mad-man's plan, ultimately led to the so-called 'Ningxia Campaign' which eliminated the 4Th army, and ruined the chances of Zhang Guotai at ultimate Leadership over China. According to historians, up to 75% of the total 80 thousand men strong army was annihilated, either dying from starvation, the horrible weather, or the incessant attacks of the very hostile Hui population (who were interested in their own independence which they hoped to gain through their 'Ma Clique' of Warlords).
Without any supporters within the party and too honorable to sell out or too ambitious to retire himself, Zhang was purged in 1937 at the Extended Meeting of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China. Finally done with the Communist Party he defected to the Kuomintang in 1938.

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"The Long March - The Untold Story"
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Another Party who were hardly amused were the Independent Tibetan Government in Lhasa which had its own idea's about the continent wide and even world-wide situation emerging. Clearly, they would have nothing to do with a Liberated Independent but reformed and socialist Tibet as the 14Th Dalai Lama stated in 1936 AD, supported by the Panchen Lama:
' Where-ever the communist bandits go, the first thing they do is to burn the temples and monasteries, destroy the buddhist statues, kill the Lama's and silence the sound of prayers ...'. ' No wonder everyone hates them'. 'They are a big threat for us Buddhists ...'.
'Arm yourselves, help the Nationalist troops, and prepare to defend our people against the evil enemy of our religion. Do not believe in their sweet propaganda ! They will burn your house and destroy your family. I am telling you out of a kind intention and to save the world !'.

Needless to say, after the eradication of the Tibetans involved, nothing much was ever heard of the Tibetan Peoples Republic. Today, neither Party -China nor the Tibetan Government in Exile- wants to base Tibetan Independence on the 1936 AD events.
On September 21, 1987 AD, at the Congressional Human Rights Caucus in Washington, D.C., the Dalai Lama announced a Five Point Peace Plan for Tibet.  In this speech and document he called for a conversion of Tibet into a zone of peace, a sanctuary in which humanity and nature can live together in harmony.  I also called for respect of human rights, democratic ideals, environmental protection, and a halt to the Chinese population transfer into Tibet. The fifth point of the peace plan called for earnest negotiations between the Tibetans and the Chinese.
As stated by the Dalai Lama in his Address to the Members of the European Parliament Strasbourg in June of 1988 AD; 'We, have therefore, taken the initiative to formulate some thoughts which, we hope, may serve as a basis for resolving the issue of Tibet.  I would like to take this opportunity to inform the distinguished gathering here on the main points of our thinking'.
China Report - Map Yuan Dynasty Mongol Empire in Time 1206 AD - 1294 AD
A Schematic Map of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan (TeMuJin) and descendants through its several stages of conquest in its short but Impressive Existance in History. Timeline depicts the Mongol Conquest starting in the Year 1206 AD, when Genghis Khan first united the Mongol-Turkic Tribes of Mongolia and Lake BayKal becoming Great Khan. The Timeline continues through the year 1219 AD, the year 1223 AD taking Transoxiania, 1227 AD, 1237 AD when the Northern Jin Dynasty of China was annihilated, 1259 AD conquering ancient China above the Jiangste River and 1279 AD when all of China was taken and the Yuan Dynasty Established under the Kublai Khan. Last is the Year 1294 AD when the
Click to go to Map !
In 1264 AD, the Buddhist Affairs Administrative Office was founded, and Basaba was made director of the office and put in charge of the work of Buddhism in the country and of the affairs of Tibet. Three Pacification Commissioners Offices were established in Tibet during the Yuan Dynasty, which were the first official organizational system established by the central government to excercise complete sovereignty over Tibet.
In 1268 AD, Kublai Khan sent officials to Tibet to establish census register and fix taxes (as was done in all other provinces and regions of the continent wide Mongolian Empire). Thirteen Wanhu (an official with
an enfeoffment of 10.000 households) were appointed, and Sagya officials were appointed to supervise the collection of taxes. A local administrative management system of combining political power with religion was establishment under the jurisdiction of the Central Government."
In reality, in exchange for the Military Rule of the Yuan over Tibet, as was the case with many regions within the humongous Mongol Empire, the Tibetans were allowed to live on much as they had before. The only difference were the taxes. In exchange for the alliance there was no Mongolian (Yuan) interference in Tibetan Religious. On the contrary, as had been the tradition since the receiving of the Dalai Lama Title by Tibetan ruler Tsongkhapa, although the Mongolians dominated militarily, in religious affairs they all subdued to the overlordship, the teachings of the Dalai Lama and the Yellow Hat sect of Tibet. Both Tibetans and Mongolians adhered to the same religious teachings and beliefs. Thus, there was a close cultural connection with the People of Mongolia, who shared a Nomadic lifestyle and borders. Of Han Chinese there is no mention.
As a result of the Tibetan dominance on the ethical and religious front, as well as the overal good relations, the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty was satisfied to leave but a small contingent of Mongolian military in Lhasa. In effect, due to their small number they were hugely outnumbered by the Tibetan population. They also depended heavily on the Tibetans for logistic and other support, and as result the Mongolian administrators and tax men had to work with Tibetan Bureaucrats and aristocracy to get anything done in Tibet.
Mongol Empire reached its largest geographical size and Zenith, 22% of world land area, but through lack of central leadership and over-expansion fragmented into 4 large parts, then imploded upon itself.
Qinghai and Tibet during after the 1911 AD - Post feudal China, the Tibetans and Tibet :
value to the young and aspiring Emperor Qianlong.
As described in the history of the Qing Dynasty, under the Reign of the Qianlong Emperor, regions beforehand 'reconnoitered' by the Shanxi Bankers and Traders were than absorbed into a new and larger Qing Empire through the means of military conquest.
First up were the remaining Mongol Tribes of current day Mongolia, who were quickly subdued adding Inner-Mongolia and the current day Democratic Republic of Mongolia to the List of Chinese Tributary States.
Then came to planned conquest of the remaining Territories of today's Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region in the West, adding them as the Western "Protectorate" under the Qing Dynasty Rule. This completed a strategic Plan to regain the Empire roughly along the Lines of the ancient Han and Tang Dynasty conquest.
The Strategic Conquest however, was not entirely completed. Tibet was yet another region where Chinese Influence was established through proxies and it was also where the strategic resources of Grass, Horses and Salt were found in abundance. Not in the last place, with the latest expansions of the Qing Empire the Chinese borders were long and extensive, spanning around Tibet through the 1200 kilometer Hexi Coridor and counting roughly another 2000 kilometers across the Taklamakan Desert to Kashgar (Kashi).
With the Regions North of Xinjiang under growing influence of the Russian Tzars, the Chinese might wish to have more control over the South, meaning Tibet. In a strictly military sense the Tibetan Plateaux was the local highground that dominated over all the western territories recently gained by the Qing Armies. Although the Tibetans were poor, and currently at peace, they were tough fighters who had done serious damage to Chinese and other Armies in the Past. There was a famous instance during the Tang Dynasty Era that was not yet forgotten.

As the document by the Government of the Peoples Republic of China in the Section 'Tibet as an inseparable part of China' part of the document 'Tibet - The 'Roof of the World' , from the series China - Facts & Figures ; ISBN: 7-119-01259-2 / Z502 and Published by Beijing Foreign Language Press (BFL) in 1990 AD, Beijing has it : "In 1728 AD, the Qing Regime sent an Imperial Commissioner to be stationed in Tibet, and in 1751 AD the Tibetan local Government was established".

In 1751 AD the Lamaist Kingdom of Tibet relinquished ultimate Sovreignty to the Manchu Ching Empire, in favor of encroaching others. Although Kings within their own Territory, the Lama's would henceforth receive their Recognition of their Titles as Religious Kings from the Chinese Emperor. Chinese administrators were sent into Qinghai (kokonor), Amdo and Tibet to collect (seasonal) taxes.

"In 1793 AD, the Imperially Approved Regulations concerning Tibetan Affairs were issued. It stipulated that the Imperial Commissioner stationed in Tibet conduct Tibetan affairs together with Dalai and Bainqen. Regulations concerning Government officials, the military, the administration of Justice, defense, public finance and so were also stipulated in explicit terms.
In the 1720's and 1790's the Qing Government used military force twice in Tibet. The first time it put down the rebellion of the Junggar Tribesmen from Mongolia and the second time it counter-attacked the incursion by the Ghurka's winning complete victory in both operations.
In 1888 AD and 1904 AD Britain sent troops directly to invade Tibet which the Tibetan People fought firmly against with their primitive weapons. Unfortunatly the struggle failed because of the corrupt Qing Government, although Tibet did not become a colony of the Imperialists."

The British 'expedition' into Tibet during 1903 AD and 1904 AD was an invasion of Tibet by British Indian forces (Ghurka's), as (western) historians generally see it, seeking to prevent the Russian Empire from interfering in Tibetan affairs and thus gaining a base in one of the buffer states surrounding British India, by reasoning similar to that which had led British forces into Afghanistan some twenty years before. Rumors had it that Tibet would be 'given' by the Ching Government to 'The Russians', one of the Imperialist Nations successfully encroaching on a mortally weakened China and competing with Britain in Central Asia, Tibet, Xinjiang, Mongolia and China.
It was certainly also an attempt to pry Tibet away from the dwindling influence of the Central Chinese Government formed by the Empress-Dowager Cixi and her (now despised) Clique of the terminal Qing Dynasty.

During the British Invasion of Tibet, which is also known as the 'Younghusband Expedition' several unusual events occurred which (ethnic) Tibetan historians belief to prove that Tibet was independent of China. The Tibetan Independence case makers also asserts that the British made a good impression on the Tibetans by giving medical treatment to wounded Tibetan prisoners and giving them gifts before freeing them, and by paying local inhabitants well for supplies so that there was no true malignant intend behind the incursion(s).
Whatever the true circumstances, the British Incursions into Tibet had one important if not crucial lasting effect, that is, even though the relatively small British Army could not and did not establish British Colonial Rule over Tibet, in the process the attention of those in Government in China was completely refocused, under-pinning the importance of Tibet for China. Ever since, a process of re-assertion of historic influences in Tibet has taken place. And much more than that.

As for the 'Younghusband Expedition' ; today Chinese historians tell of Tibetans opposing the British heroically out of loyalty not to Tibet, but to China. They assert that the British troops looted and burned, that the British interest in trade relations was a pretext for annexing Tibet, a step toward the ultimate goal of annexing all of China; but that the Tibetans destroyed the British forces, and that Younghusband escaped only with a small retinue. The Chinese government has turned Gyantze Dzong into an "Anti-British Museum" promoting these views, as well as other themes such as the brutal life endured by 'Tibetan serfs' who fiercely loved their 'Chinese mother country'.

What is completely ignored by the document 'Tibet - The 'Roof of the World', section 'Tibet as an inseparable part of China', from the series China - Facts & Figures (ISBN: 7-119-01259-2 / Z502 and Published by Beijing Foreign Language Press (BFL) in 1990 AD, Beijing) is that after the British expedition of Tibet by Sir Francis Younghusband in early 1904 AD, the 13Th Dalai Lama to fled to Urga (Ulaanbataar) in Mongolia, where he stayed for over a year while teaching Buddhist religion to the Mongolians.

Not much after the Dalai Lama temporarily left Tibet for better safety, the Qing dynasty immediately proclaimed the 13Th Dalai Lama deposed and again repeated its assertion of  sovereignty over Tibet and made claims over Nepal and Bhutan as well (Tibet considered Bhutan part of its territory at that Time).

Somewhere in 1905/06 the 13Th Dalai Lama traveled to the Kumbum Monastery near Xining and from there on to the Ching Court at Beijing where he was granted an audience with Emperor Guangxu and Empress Dowager Cixi. The Emperor tried to stress Tibet's subservient role, although according to popular sources (unconfirmed) the Dalai Lama refused to kowtow to him. The 13Th Dalai Lama stayed in Beijing until December of 1908 AD when he returned to Tibet.
Afterwards, while in Tibet the Dalai Lama began reorganizing his Tibetan government, the Qing Dynasty organized a military expedition, which was sent into Tibet during the short summer of 1910. Taken aback by the openly hostile actions the 13Th Dalai Lama once again left Tibet, this time fleeing to safety within Darjeeling in North-India, avoiding capture by the Qing Troops. In India the Dalai Lama was warmly welcomed by the British, with whom he established further friendly contacts.

In the next year, 1911, the Qing Dynasty was overthrown in the Xinhai Revolution forever sweeping Feudal Dynasties out of power in China. Corresponding with the demise of the Manchu Qing, Chinese officials were expelled from Tibetan Lands and by the end of 1912 AD  the last Qing troops were escorted out of Tibet. The 13Th Dalai Lama Thubten Gyatso returned to Lhasa in January of 1913 AD. Although the Government of The (1st) Republic of China offered Chinese apologies for the Qing Dynasty military invasion, they once more insisted on the Dalai Lama's cooperation with the Chinese Government. Already having asserted de facto independence years earlier, the Dalai Lama declined, instead officially and publicly declaring Tibetan Independence shortly thereafter.

For more Information on the History of Qinghai as a part of the Region of Tibet during
the Ching Dynasty Era, please read: 'History of the Ching Dynasty (1644 AD - 1911 AD)' and 'History of Islam in China', plus 'Islam in China during the Ching Dynasty'.
Tibet - Tibetan Plateaux - Satellite Image Overview 1A
A Satellite Image overview Map of the entire Tibetan Plateaux including parts of bordering regions of Xinjiang-Uyghur AR, Gansu Province, Ningxia Hui AR, Inner-Mongolia AR, Sichuan Province, and Yunnan Province. Surrounding nations and Territories are: Myanmar (Burma), Bhutan, Sikkim, Nepal, Bangladesh, India, Kashmir and Pakistan.
Tibetan Plateaux Satellite Overview
The Chinese Government Document 'Tibet as an inseparable part of China' further States: "In 1930, the Kuomintang Government sent officials to Tibet to make connections and in the same year the Tibetan local government also sent a representative to Nanjing (then the seat of the 'Kuomintang National Government' which was at war with the Communist Party of China) and set up a resident Tibetan Office there."

This claim is under research, but is contradicted by several sources as Chinese officials were not welcome until the year 1933 AD, when they were allowed into Lhasa as members of a condoleance mission after the Chinese National Government in Nanjing had expressed wishes to pay their respects to the deceased 13Th Dalai Lama. Although not welcome within Tibet, the Chinese Officials stayed on after the Funeral Ceremonies had passed, setting up an un-official mission in Lhasa.

In 1934 AD, the Kuomintang government sent officials from the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Committee to Tibet to handle Tibetan affairs.
Meanwhile, by means of the de facto Administrators of Tibet in Lhasa Tibet declared itself a neutral country (bharnas gyalkhap), which would not take any part in hostilities during WWII. During the 5 years, the Tibetan government successfully resisted pressure from Britain, a threat of invasion from China by means of the Kuomintang 'National' Armies or nominally sub-ordinate warlords, and even a personal request from American President Roosevelt to allow construction of a military road through Tibetan territory, or allow the passage of military supplies. In a humanitarian gesture, passage of non-military goods was later permitted.
As is now well known through the Film '7 Years in Tibet' starring Brad Pitt, Tibet granted political asylum to two Austrian climbers who escaped from a British POW camp in India. These Men were Heinrich Harrer and Peter Aufschneiter. Tibet also provided hospitality and transport to American flyers whose plane crashed in Tibet in 1944 on their way over 'the Hump'.

In 1943 AD the self-declared independent Government of Tibet allowed the opening of a British 'Bureau of Foreign Affairs' in Lhasa. The Chinese 'National' Government and the Chinese Communist Party remained however un-welcome. Overall Tibet remained a highly secluded nation which had not admitted Foreigners, except on very unique occasions, since the 18Th Century

Apart from claiming historic rule and thus sovereignty over Tibet, the Chinese Government on its part, has accused other Nations of instigating troubles in Tibet. Apart from the accusations against Britain (which were NOT cleared after Indian Independence in 1947 AD), China accuses the United States of attempting at several moments to try and split away parts of the integral Chinese Nation.
As described in the Book 'From Opium War to Revolution', by Israel Epstein (China's first foreign Member o/t Communist Party), China asserts that : "U.S. agents" operated plots in Mongolia, in Ningxia Region as well as Tibet.
The book especially claims : "Most fascinating to the U.S. Military was Tibet, 'The Roof of the World', in which they saw great strategic possibilities for air force and rocket installations to dominate All China, the USSR and India.
First penetrating the region during world war II, they conducted reconnaissance, made political contacts with the most-imperialist corrupted section of the serf-owning aristocracy and equipped a radio network (the latter referring to the setting up of radio stations in Tibet for the Tibetan Government for communications by the Britons Reginald Fox and Robert Ford, as described by witness Heinrich Harrer in Return to Tibet (1982). According to Harrer Robert Ford was sent to Chamdo, center of conflict (with the Chinese Army) to start up a radio transmissions station (radio telephone). As a result of allegedly one test transmission Ford was then interned by The Peoples Republic for five years.). As the Kuomintang tottered to collapse, U.S. Agents became more active. Notable was the 1949 AD journey of the Lowell Thomasses, father and son, ostensibly only as radio reporters (they also filmed and took photos according to Harrer).
Actually, as they later revealed, they had been briefed by General MacArthur who commanded the U.S. Forces in he Far East from Tokyo, by General Willoughby who headed his Intelligence', and by Loy Henderson, U.S. Ambassador to India. The Thomasses returned from Lhasa proclaiming the urgency of sending "modern weapons and advisors to instruct their use".
After rushing to see President Truman in Washington, they transmitted to the Lhasa serf-owners Truman's "hope to organize the moral forces of the world against the immoral", and a proposal from U.S. Secretary of State Achison that a high Washington official enter Tibet disguised as "merely another traveler" to survey the field for "a definite program of support"."
(as western historians generally believe Lowell Thomas Sr. & Jr. were invited by the Tibetan government to make a film in Tibet in 1949 with the hope that the Lowell reports would help persuade the U.S. government to defend Tibet against the Chinese threat. The trip of the Lowells lasted 400 days. Father and son Lowell were the last Westerners to reach Lhasa before the Chinese Army. CBS did not broadcast the resultant film, Expedition to Lhasa, Tibet, until years later, but Lowell Jr's book about the expedition, named 'Out of This World' and published in 1950 became a bestseller.)

There have been many more such accusations and frictions over Time. For instance, The Peoples Republic of China claims that many 100's of supporters of Tibetan inclusion within China were massacred in Tibet at sometime during the year 1947 AD. Furthermore, they have asserted that this was done with complete support of the British Mission in Tibet.

Meanwhile, in that same year of 1947 something of a minor Civil-War broke out between the Monks from Sera Monastery and the Lhasa religious National Government consisting of the council of Khenpo's and the Dalai Lama's Office. Lhasa feared an armed attack by the notorious Sera Monks but issues were resolved and peace and calm returned within a few days.

In 1948 AD the Nations of India, Britian and the United States of America admitted what was dubbed a 'Tibetan Trade Mission' sent from a self-asserting Lhasa despite the fact that the Missions Members did not have any passports. The Mission was clearly a Tibetan attempt to expand contacts and trade with other Nations, outside of Chinese Government Channels. What really ticked the Chinese off was that the Visa's for the United States were issued by the U.S. Ambassador in Beijing, 'even though they did not have Chinese Passports".  Clearly, the Kuomintang Government of the Time, in death-struggle with the Communists, still had ambitions to hang on to Chinese Sovereignty claims over Tibet as they launched several protest against their most powerful ally. When the United States did not respond to the Chinese Protest, a Kuomintang order went out to the un-official Mission in Lhasa to take up the issue directly with the Dalai Lama himself. When trying to re-assert Chinese Sovereignty over Tibet during a meeting on July 8 of 1949 AD, the Chinese officials were asked to leave Lhasa and Tibet.

According to Chinese claims of the recent past, as soon as the Kuomintang Government was humiliated by Lhasa, the Chinese Communist Party stepped up proclaiming that 'all parts of China' would be liberated.
As the Chinese further claim, America started large scale shipments of arms into Tibet from India through Nathu-La Pass, which went on throughout 1950. As proof they quote from international news articles of the Time which proclaim this to be true.
As quoted in 'From Opium War to Liberation'  from 'The CIA Tibetan Conspiracy' by Christopher Mullen (Sept. 5, 1975 Economic Review); "In the period from 1956 to 1972 this involvement included the parachuting into Tibet of Guns, and 'Guerrilla's' trained at places such as Camp Hale, Colorado, financing and arming of 'secret armies' for border raids, and a variety of political intrigues."
The Chinese claims of CIA operations within Tibet from the 1950's onwards have been confirmed by several others sources, including by former CIA agents involved.

As a result of further Indian, British and American support for Tibetan Independence the establishing Government of the Peoples Republic of China not yet operational warned that it's Peoples Liberation Army would invade Tibet.
Near the end of the Qing Dynasty Era the government was no longer able to look after many of the needs in the nation. Foreign indemnities and corruption had bankrupted the nation, plagues and natural disasters, especially large flooding's of the Yellow River only added to the misery.  As a result various revolts ravaged the nation.  During the 19th Century no less than five wars and campaigns were waged against the Muslim Minorities in the West.
A first uprising in and around Lanzhou in current day Gansu Province and in the Tarim River Basin in 'Xinjiang'  lasted no less than 8 years before it was quelled (1820 AD-1828 AD). Later there were multiple Muslim rebellions between 1855 AD and 1873 AD in Yunnan, Gansu and Shaanxi Province.
One of these revolts was a rising of the Islamic Hui in Gansu Province and neighboring Ningxia Region known as the Dungang Revolt (1864 AD – 1875 AD). Due to the fact that the rebels took Lanzhou the City as their main stronghold, the City was badly damaged in the uprising when Qing Armies descended on City and regions for what can today best be described as a campaign of Ethnic Clensing.  The Rebel armies were decimated and those that didn't die scrambled out of the city heading West with Manchu Armies in pursuit.
Mao Zedong speaking on the ideals and benefits of Chinese Communism in 1939 AD.
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The Story of the Invasion of Tibet by Chinese Forces and the subsequent Flight of the Dalai Lama. Must See !
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In 1950 AD, the Chinese Peoples' Liberation Army launched an armed invasion into independent Amdo and Khamdo regions (Provinces) of Tibet, defeating a small but chanceless Tibetan armed force hurriedly assembled in defense of the Nation and laying the foundations for the establishment of Qinghai Province of China in East Tibet. Today's Qinghai roughly corresponds with the Chamdo Province of Tibet. It does so for mainly geographical reasons, as Chamdo lies considerably lower surrounded by mountain ranges.

The 14Th Dalai Lama fled the Capital for the first Time in 1950, traveling south to cross the border into Darjeeling of India through the Chumbi Valley. However, once there the Dalai Lama hesitated leaving his country and thus ended up staying. He stayed at a Monastery in the Chumbi Valley until the summer of 1951 AD when he returned to Lhasa in order to serve 'his people' in time of dire crisis. The faint hope was that they could still reach some kind of agreement with the Chinese.
At the same time a Chinese Governor-General was sent to Lhasa through India in order to assume Chinese Rule over the 'Tibet Region'.

On the 23rd of May of 1951, a seventeen point agreement  was signed between, as the Chinese side holds it, representatives of the Tibetan Government and the Government of the People's Republic of China, re-uniting Tibet with 'The Motherland' and putting Chinese proposed policies into effect. In reality however, the agreement was not signed for the Tibetan side by the Dalai Lama, nor by the Board of Ministers. The agreement was signed in by Kalon Ngabo Ngawang Jigme, the military commander of south-eastern Kham Province, who thus surrendered Tibet.
That spring of 1951, Mao had cleverly plotted that while the 'Tibet Delegation' they were to be joined by the 10Th Panchen Lama who with his High Religious Importance might help tip the balance in the Chinese favor.  When all were joined together they could finally be put on the spot and basically be forced to sign the 17-Point Agreement. Next, Mao and Zhou made sure a telegram was signed by all the Party, requesting the Dalai Lama, to implement the forced Agreement. As has been revealed in various sources on Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party leadership, although nearly complete autonomy was promised to Tibetans, these were really just empty words, used by Mao to gain cooperation and buy Time. The Plan had always been to 'unite every inch' of the former Qing Territories, and in reality ambitions were even larger than that. Mao and Zhou were already setting up a new Chinese Empire and influence sphere in Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Indonesia and other Asian Nations. The goal, although resisted almost all the way by 'friend and Comrade' Stalin, was to make China (P.R.C.) the leader of the Communist World, at least in Asia.

On September 9Th of 1951 AD, the first troops of the PLA entered Lhasa, the Capital of Tibet.

The 10Th Panchen Lama, Choekyi Gyaltsen, was recognized by the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso when they met in 1952 AD.
In 1 March 1959 a large scale uprising occurred throughout all Tibetan regions in response to rumors of a Chinese kidnapping plot involving the whisking away of the Dalai Lama, the Nations spiritual Leader, to Beijing. Not long after the Dalai Lama fled to Nepal and India beyond, establishing a Government in Exile, and leaving Tibet and the Tibetans -for the time being- under the rule and control of the Peoples Republic of China and its Government.

In the beginning of the 1960's Mao's 'Great Leap Forward' (launched: 1958) culminated dramatically in the Three Years of bitterness when harvest failed across China (P.R.C.) and inflated idealistic targets had been proven un-attainable. The trouble that plagued the outlying regions were two-fold. After being forced to supply grain for China to sell on the world market, thus having the poorest peasants pay for China's 'modernization' and industrialization,  these same regions were now pressed out in order to satisfy the many hungry stomachs within the Chinese mainland. As (even) the Chinese Communist Party now admits, 10's of Millions of rural poor died like flies throughout China during this tragic episode. In the case of Tibet, large scale hunting in the region, the wholesale slaughter of animal herds and quite possibly ongoing measures for collectivation led to renewed frictions with the Tibetans.

THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION IN CHINA AND TIBET:
And that was certainly not all. In the 1960's the Cultural Revolution descended as a Dark Cloud over China and Tibet. All peoples, the Han but especially the minorities suffered terrible indignities and destruction during this period. A news black-out ensured that little news from within China, let alone Tibet, could reach the outside world. The Cultural Revolution was a period of especially terrific tragedy to Tibet (and thus Qinghai) as Land-distributions and not much later communal living were enforced. The nomadic peoples of Tibet were no longer allowed to roam. In addition, political re-education was introduced and Religion banned. Subsequently, Red Guards and PLA Troops destroyed 99% of all 3800 temples and monasteries and many Tibetans were imprisoned, tortured or worse. Large groups of Tibetans were forcibly resettled in Chinese Provinces. (Only 17 Monasteries en Temples are left today although some have been 'restored'). Almost as if  to ensure that earlier Tibetan dis-sympathies with the Han would reignite, the year 1960 also saw the conversion of Lhasa's holiest Temple Jokhang into a 'Cinema and Dormatory for visiting tourist' (H.Harrer 'Return to Tibet') as well as the Destruction of the Guardian Deity of Tibet, the 11-Headed Chenrezig at Jokhang Temple. The Central Governments disconcern with aspects of Tibetan Culture could not be demonstrated more clearly.

Foreign visitors could not reach China, let alone Tibet during the Cultural Revolution but even Han (mainland) visitors were rare and sparse. Practically the only 'tourist' were either High End Cadres, Politicians and some favored and trusted by the Chinese Government such as Israel Epstein. Chinese Books that relate of these visits all marvel at the progress made with the 'transformation of serf society', give wide accounts of Tibetan gratitude, describe the lives and functions of Tibetan Communist cadres and report of the crimes of the 'feudal' Tibetan system before the 'Liberation' of Tibet.

After seeing the results of the Tibetan holocaust with his own eyes during a 4 month tour through Tibet and hearing the victims tell the tales of their sufferings, even the Panchen Lama, who earlier had declared some sympathy for the Communist Policies of (land- and social-)reform, was shocked. The result was a protest petition which the Panchen officially filed with the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the latter of which he had been made Deputy Chairman of in 1954 AD.
The powerful document was a clear indictment of just about any Chinese Policy which had lately been carried out in Tibet. Suddenly, the nominally democratic conference and committee had to face the results of the brutal suppression of the Tibetan People and all of their Culture during and after the Chinese invasion of Tibet. In May of 1962, the 10Th Panchen met in Beijing with Zhou Enlai in order to discuss a 70.000 character document, however this was only done to placate the Panchen and lure him in close. The initial reaction seemed positive, but neither Zhou Enlai nor Mao Zedong were in anyway concerned with the Tibetan fate. They had far bigger plans, and besides, the Tibetan Culture was regarded ignorant and superstitious. Mao and Zhou had bigger fish to fry at home as well. In fact, their own fate at the Top was in doubt.
In October 1962, the PRC authorities dealing with the population criticized the petition. Subsequently, 'Chairman' Mao called the petition "... a poisoned arrow shot at the Party by reactionary feudal overlords." In 1964, the 10Th Panchen was publicly humiliated at Politburo meetings, dismissed from all posts of authority, declared 'an enemy of the Tibetan people'. After his dream journal (religious diary) had been confiscated and used against him,  he was shuffled out of the public eye and imprisoned (until 1983 AD). Nearly until the end of the Cultural Revolution 'Red Guards' roamed the few cities in Tibet, terrorizing the local citizens. In their patriotic and political zeal they committed heinous atrocities that were suffered alike by unwanted elements throughout China. Chaos and terror were complete.
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The Story of Deng XiaoPing, legendary Leader of Communist China and survivor of the Long March.
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YouTube Video: International News Broadcast dedicated to the 2008 Tibetan 'Unrests' which have renewed the Tibet Controversy.
According to the Tibetan Government in Exile, the whole of Tibet known as Cholka-Sum (U-Tsang, Kham and Amdo) should become a self-governing democratic political entity founded on law by agreement of the people for the common good and the protection of themselves and their environment, in association with the People's Republic of China.

In 1991 AD a sizeable earthquake struck the Xining Region, destroying large parts of the Kumbum (or Ta'Er) Monastery.

March the 10Th of 2008, the 49th anniversary of the failed uprising in 1959 in Tibet saw the rising of large scale protest in Tibet Autonomous Region which subsequently spread to all native Tibetan Regions within the Peoples Republic of China.
The events began when hundreds of monks from Lhasa's Drepung monastery began peaceful protests calling for the release of other monks detained since the previous autumn and for religious freedom. When fifty more monks were detained the stage was set for more protest actions.
Although suppressed, tensions between Tibetans, Han and Hui simmer.
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Hu Yaobang was purged by Deng Xiaoping for 'Liberalism' not much after (In the winter of 1986-87, students protested in Beijing in favor of democratic reforms) and then remained under strict house-arrest in Beijing until his death in early 1989 AD sparked the beginnings of the now infamous Tiananmen Square protests.
In the aftermath of the debacle at Tiananmen Square in 1989 AD, hard-liners and The Military regained influence in China leading to another crackdown in Tibet. Hu Yaobang's idea's and person were thoroughly discredited and promises for more Tibetan Autonomy once more were swept under the rug. Even today, after posthumus honors given to Hu Yaobang, Tibet remains un-mentioned.
returned to Tibet, in hindsight darkly foretelling of what was to happen in the Political Capital of China itself. Deng, an Old Long March Veteran and outright communist who had survived all the Party intrigues and murders including Mao's Cultural Revolution and Lin Biao's assassination to come out on top, would not play the 'Liberals' Ball-game. To him Liberalism was an obscene idea.
As a highpoint of the suddenly developing 'sunshine' policy and not much mentioned since, the Chinese side cautiously allowed the return of a long-standing Exile, the 10Th Panchen Lama, to Tibet. After a 19 Year absence, reportedly under house-arrest in Beijing since 1964 AD and possibly under political control of the Communist Party heads, the Panchen returned to Lhasa in the spring of 1982 AD.
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Mao Zedong and Chou Enlai enjoying Celebrations in Tiananmen Square with The People of Beijing.
In 1954 AD the first gravel paved road leading from Sichuan Province to Lhasa was opened. The road opened up the first military supply route into Tibet and its Capital.
Beforehand Lhasa was only connected with the outside world through a horse-trail. Notably the path had been used to ferry the first two cars into Lhasa in the 1920's. The two cars were in the ownership of the 13Th Dalai Lama, who in a feit of imagination had asked them to be dis-assembled then shipped from India on Yaks and Mules. These reached Lhasa, where they could be used to drive around the Town.

According to various sources, among which 'Captured in Tibet' by Robert Ford (London 1958) British 'agents' such as Ford himself advised 'Feudal Rebel Forces in Chamdo Province' (at least) in the early 1950's.
In that same year of 1954 the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama, now in supposed political unity with the Motherland traveled the length from Lhasa to Beijing in order to attend the First National Assemblee of The Peoples Republic, an important event in which the minorities hoped to claim their rights at autonomy. No such thing developed however. Not then and not since.
YouTube Video: Rare film 1954 AD Journey of 14Th Dalai Lama & 10Th Panchen Lama from Lhasa to Beijing.

Armed resistance broke out in Amdo and eastern Kham in June 1956 AD. The rebellious Tibetan forces consisted mainly of Khampa's. Leader of the Khampa Rebels was one Andrugtshang, a son from one of the largest and most influential noble families in Kham Region (Province).
At the same Time the Dalai Lama traveled to Kalimpong in India in order to attend the celebrations for the 2500 year anniversary of the manifestation of the Buddha,  the 10Th Panchen Lama also attended.

In 1958 AD a large battle was fought between Chinese troops and Tibetan irregulars near Tsethang, a market town south of the Brahmaputra river in south-east Tibet. In the event, reportedly, a force mainly consisting of Khampa's (a Tibetan Minority) killed 1000's of Chinese soldiers and achieved a momentary victory for what was by then a sizeable and well-equipped rebel army.
The ascension of the 14Th Dalai Lama in 1940 AD and that of the 10Th Bainqen Erdini in 1949 AD were approved by the central government (in 1940 by the Kuomintang National Government led by Chiang Kai-Shek, in 1949 - under research) according to the old system, and both the ceremonies were presided over by the president of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Committee.
Thus history shows that Tibet (and thus Qinghai) has been part of China's territory since ancient Times."

Again this cannot be confirmed. That is, in July of 1949 AD,  the Chinese officials which had stayed on in Lhasa since 1933 AD as part of a one-sided and un-official mission to Tibet were requested to leave. Although all friendly formalities were observed, the Han Chinese were in fact expelled from Tibet simply because it had assumed National Independence. Furthermore, earlier events surrounding the declaration of The Peoples' Republic of Tibet in East Tibet (now Qinghai), which naturally occured without consultations with the Dalai Lama, Panchen Lama and Lhasa Government, had assured that the Tibetan Rulers were not interested in dealing with the Chinese Communist Party which they already suspected of
YouTube Video: British film 1939 AD Ascension of 14Th Dalai Lama - Scenes + Ceremonies.
an interest in reclaiming sovereignty over the 'Tibet Territory' aiming to subjecting it to a communist system.
The document Section 'Tibet as an inseparable part of China', leaves out the significant fact of the establishment of a Soviet Base in (East) Tibet by the 4Th Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party, an army under Leadership of Zhang Guotai. After running into conflict with Mao Zedong over future strategy,
this Red Army had traveled along a separate route and right through the Tibetan Grasslands of (what is now) Sichuan Province and Qinghai Province. During its Time on the grasslands in the summer, avoiding Mao Zedong and confrontation, the Army Cadres helped Tibetans set-up a Soviet Base which could also serve as a future power-base for any arriving Red Army. The Soviet Base was officially turned into 'The Peoples Republic of Tibet' setting up an independent Nation with an army along the lines of earlier used models.

Furthermore, not much heard of today, and entirely out of sight of the world in those days, in 1939 AD a German 'Expedition', the so-called Schaeffer Mission reached Lhasa. Although the diplomatic Mission from Germany had all kinds of covert reasons for appearing on the scene, for Tibetan History one of the most interesting facts is that the German Diplomatic Mission dealt directly with the Dalai Lama and his religious Government in Lhasa, without any interference, interruption or other influence of 'Chinese Officials'. A juicy detail of the whole string of events that came from the German Visit is the existence today of a Letter written by the Dalai Lama, as head of State of Tibet, to none other than Adolf Hitler, the 'Chancellor' at the Time but
YouTube Video: National Geographic Docu: Dalai Lama's letter to Adolf Hitler.
described to the Dalai Lama as Supreme Ruler of the German People. In the mind of the inexperienced, supersticious and feudal Tibetans Hitler was the King of the Noble Germans.
Source DVD "Guge; Lost Kingdom of Tibet"
( available from Amazon.com )
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Map of Eastern Asia showing the Territories of the first successive Dynasties in Han China up to 220 AD.
place of Pilgrimmage as well. While the Han Chinese Nation was united for the First Time under the tyrannical dictatorship of Ch'In Shi Huangdi (221 BC - 206 BC) and successively became expansionist under the Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD) the Tibetan population still lived in division, basically each Tribe residing in and fighting for their own valley and region. At the Time there was no Tibetan Nation, only the geographically circumscript Region of the Tibetan Plateaux, the roof of the World.
from the initial long-distance trade and many hardships grew a nation-wide business Empire and distrubution network. For various reason the Trade was mainly in the hands of People from Shanxi Province (See: History of Shanxi Province), who helped extend trading contacts into remote and underdeveloped regions of Mongolia, Tibet, The Hexi Corridor and Xinjiang. In fact, the Shanxi Bankers often went in front of the Chinese Armies, and followed after, forming the economic arm of Chinese influence and expansion.

Naturally, at first this north-western corner of the Tibetan Plateaux was a new Frontier. For long this out of the way corner would beknown as a place "Beyond-the-Great-Wall". At first, the quantities of Salt Traded were only small and only the rich upper-class could afford to buy this salt for their own consumption. Other uses were medicinal or cultural, the precious salt to be given as present to a friend or important relation. (It is still tradition in many places of the Northwest to send salt and tea as presents to friends). The hardships involved in the trade were monumental. However, it was an important and lucrative trade which in Time increased Han interest in the Regions and helped develop the trade routes of Central Asia.
As for the Salt of Qinghai, one of the famous sources of the Han Dynasty Salt was the so-called Chaka salt lake which largely consists of crude salt which contains more than 96% sodium chloride with few impurities such as kalium and magnesium salts. As might be noted by your tour-guide whenever you visit the regions and may get a chance to try out the local cuisine, the local people have known for 1000's of years that vegetables pickled with this salt will last much longer and that dishes cooked with the salt are more delicious.  Hence, the remote Chaka Lake, near Wulan in Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture is still being mined today, and furthermore counts as a growingly popular though minor tourist destination of the regions.

The main pathway of the Silk Road, established around 100 BC and developed there after, led westward out of Chang'An (Xi'An), across the Yellow River at Lanzhou, to travel around the Tibetan Plateaux and the current Province of Qinghai through the Hexi Mountain Corridor to the West. A minor secondary route out of Lanzhou passed however through Xining and across the Northern Edge of the Tibetan Plateaux to rejoin the main path at the lost City of Miran which was only refound by Aurel Stein in the early 20Th Century.
This ancient route still exist today Century as a minor provincial road through barren regions.
One of the very first photographs of the Potala Palace in Lhasa, taken in and around the year 1900 AD when a British invasion upturned life in the secluded mountainous nation.
Source Book
"Good Deeds & Gunboats"
By Hugh Deane
( available from Amazon.com )
Source Documentary
"Kekexili Mountain Patrol"
( available from Amazon.com )
Dissidents in Tibet?The Middle Road that never Followed ..
Religion & Politics in Tibet? Film about the Life of dissident Monk Gendun Choephel.
Buy it at Movie Universe - Click Here
Qinghai and Tibet during the Yuan Dynasty (1271 AD - 1368 AD) :
Many of the destructive acts committed in Tibet during the Cultural Revolution Era have been later apologized for by the Chinese Government via ways of Hu Yaobang, who became Secretary General of the Communist Party of China in 1980 and Party Chairman in 1981. Hu was possibly China's only true reformer, a man of the kind unseen since his disappearance from the political stage somewhat later on, and rolled out  a refreshingly pragmatic policy for Tibet after realizing the mistakes of previous policies, especially the shameful atrocities committed in name of the Chinese People during the Cultural Revolution (1966 AD - 1976 AD officially, the policies may have started earlier in Tibet and other area's).  After a month long working visit to Tibet Hu announced the orderly withdrawal of thousands of Chinese Han cadres from the Tibet Autonomous Region believing that as he stated; 'Tibetans should be empowered to administer their own affairs'.
During the early 1980's communal agricultural policies for Tibet were abandoned, Nomadic herders were free to roam, religious bans were relaxed and the first tourists were allowed to visit Lhasa and the new 'Tibet Autonomous Region'.
Soundbonus - Karunesh - 'Tibetan sound bowls' (for meditation)

Historic Photo of the Year 821- 822 AD Doring (Stele) with the 'Peace' Edict, now surrounded by a brick wall and moved east of the Potala Palace.
Date: unknown.
The Salt of Tibet - as hard as it gets ...
Suffering for a bit of Life-sustaining Salt. Film about Hard Life, Buddhism & traditional jobs in the High Altitude Desert.
Buy it at Movie Universe - Click Here
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Cherchen (Qiemo), Bayin-Gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang-Uyghur AR
Khotan (Hetien), Khotan (Hetien) Prefecture, Xinjiang-Uyghur AR
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As a result of the complete collapse of Chinese Society during the colonial infringement on the Chinese Nation itself the remote and  un-connected western regions were left in a situation where they were left to fend for themselves. Soon China would split into its various regions and provinces itself falling into its warlord era.
Without railroads, roads or navigable rivers the regions of Ningxia, current day Gansu, Tibet and naturally the region known as "East Turkestan" and dubbed "Xinjiang" aka "New Territory" by the Manchu who ruled over Manchuria, Mongolia as well as China during the Qing Dynasty, as far flung regions with few Han Chinese inhabitants to speak of had been started to be regarded as satellite 'states' of the Chinese heartlands. Since the Manchu were lossing control of their Empire, almost all Colonial Nations (Russia, Japan, Britain, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany, USA) were increasingly interested in expanding their influence in the Regions. Most notably, both the Russian side and the British side took the most notable interest, leading to what has been dubbed "the Great Game in (Central) Asia".
In accordance with these ambitions many exploratory missions to The West - i.e. Tibet, Xinjiang and Inner and Outer Mongolia - were made by various renowned travelers and discoverers. Among them were well-known Men such as Sven Hedin, Aurel Stein, various Russian Parties, Britons and the lone German Heinrich Harrer. Notably, the Russian explorer Gombojab Tsybikov was the first person to make photographs in and around Lhasa,
This page was last updated on: July 28, 2015
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residing in that City during in 1900 and 1901 AD. He did so with the aid of the thirteenth Dalai Lama's Russian courtier Agvan Dorjiyev (who was a suspected Russian agent of unclarified sorts).
Meanwhile both local leaderships, Hui, Tibetan and Uyghur prepared for moves to emancipate themselves and their peoples.
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Mao Zedong photographed while chain-smoking his Pirate Brand Sigarettes.
Buddha statues have been smashed, piled together and lit afire; a scene photographed somewhere in China during the terrible and dehumanizing Cultural Revolution Era.